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Network Propositions
11800 - 11999


11800
Long-term geological implications of this network include:


11801
As we are now entering the final phase of Earth habitation, we may downgrade the priority of efforts to preserve the physical environment.


11802
The Magellan space probe has shown that more than 80% of the Venusian surface is covered with lava flows, lava-plains and other volcanic features. Venus has over 430 volcanoes, which are 12 miles or more in diameter, and also tens of thousands of smaller ones. Venus' meteor impact craters indicate a planetary surface-age of about 500mys. Most Venusian experts believe that the crust of Venus was lava-flooded during widespread volcanism that ended about 500mys ago. The Magellan photographs show no signs of any recent volcanic activity on Venus.


11803
It would appear that both Venus and Earth have experienced thermonuclear core-explosions. From Venus, we may learn that such an explosion, on reaching planetary surface, may cause vast lava flows, which cover virtually the whole globe ... and, after this outpouring, the lower atmosphere remains heated at approximately 850 degrees F. The Venusian atmosphere is now approximately 96% carbon dioxide and 4% nitrogen ... and the cloud-cover is of sulphuric acid vapour. We are warned that Earth may have a similar fate in store.


11804
Our geochronological projections indicate that, within 500,000 years, Earth's surface will be comparable to that of present-day Venus, but that Earth will become uninhabitable long before then ... probably within 60,000 years. Our race is on a lit short-fuse warning to leave mother Earth. There is some irony that initial space exploration was given impetus by cold-war rivalry ... but we may also have known intuitively that it had to be done as a matter of race-survival.


11805
Data, re the last ice-age, leads us to expect the following areas to become wetter as we enter the next (and final ice-age: Australia; South-East, Central and Northern Asia; India; Northern Europe; France; Greece; Switzerland; Austria; the Balkans; Turkey; Southern and Coastal China; Japan; 80% of USA; Canada; South and Central America; Central Africa; Madagascar; the North Island of New Zealand.


11806
Changes in rainfall 1901-1997 (according to the US National Climatic Data Center) show the following areas as becoming wetter: Australia (except for Queensland and the SW); the NE of USA; Eastern Canada; the NW of Canada; Coastal Texas; Argentina; Northern Europe; Siberia and Northern Asia generally; Greenland; the Red Sea coastal areas of Arabia; coastal Libya; Madagascar; the North Island of New Zealand. (Note: Most of the USA was mildly wetter).


11807
Changes in rainfall 1901-1997 (according to the US National Climatic Data Center) show the following areas as becoming drier: Central and Southern Mexico; Hawaii; Western and Saharan Africa; the Central parts of South Africa; the Sudan; Central and North Eastern India; Japan; Taiwan; Malaysia; South-East Asia; South-West China; Southern Europe; Queensland and SW Australia; the South Island of New Zealand.


11808
In future, using nanobio replicating-assemblers, we will be able to make virtually anything from common materials. Molecular machines will arrange atoms, to order. For instance, future space-colonies will be able to produce their water and food requirements, nano-biologically, from local rock.


11809
In view of a 60,000-year Earth habitation remainder time (EHRT), the USA and USSR space programmes didn't start a moment too soon ... and space expenditure to date has been entirely justified ... and more urgency and funds should be accorded to space programmes ... and all nations should give practical support.


11810
It is a characteristic of the Absolute that it is wholly in each of its powers and subsets. The absolute mainset is wholly in each of its subsets.


11811
All things finite are also absolute and transfinite.


11812
The Absolute is an infinite, finite, and transfinite integral whole.


11813
All perception is creative.


11814
We, an absolute species, create what we perceive.


11815
All acts of creation are transfinite: All creations are transfinite.


11816
From a finite point of view, acts of creation operate and take effect retrospectively ... but, transfinitely, acts of creation take no time whatsoever: They are, so to say, immediate.


11817
When explorers discover something, they tend to assume that the thing exists independently of their perception of it ... but this is not so. Perception is creative and it is transfinite as to its nature and operation. Discoveries are integral with the creation of what is discovered. Our species creates what it perceives, and perceives what it creates.


11818
All things finite are also transfinite: All things finite are created transfinitely.


11819
Our species is one with its priors: There is but one absolute living species.


11820
Our species is the only species in existence which creates. Our species creates the universe transfinitely.


11821
Our species is one with the Absolute: We are the Absolute species: We are the creators.


11822
We are, so to say, the leading edge of creation: We are the creators of the universe.


11823
There is nothing ahead of us: All is behind us: We create all that there is.


11824
We have created all pre-human life-forms: In creating ourselves, we have created our priors.


11825
All perception (human and non-human) is creative and transfinite.


11826
It is erroneous to regard our species as an insignificant side-show in a vast universe. Such a view is very wide of the mark. Our species creates the universe ... and it would not exist without us.


11877
We cannot delegate our qualities of will, choice, intuition and compassion to computers ... but what we are able to delegate to the advanced computers of the future will enhance our qualities and capabilities enormously.


11878
Of the almost infinite number of possible organic molecules, only a few are used to form life, as we know it. Amino acids and the nucleotide bases are of supreme importance. Amino acids constitute the building blocks of proteins, and the nucleotide bases constitute the building blocks of the nucleic acids.


11879
Whereas the Earth's surface temperature is almost entirely due to the sun-rays it intercepts, not so with the planets Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune: There is about as much heat coming from their interiors as is coming from the Sun.


11880
The Voyager space-probes are on escape trajectories from the solar system. Moving at a million miles a day (relative to Earth), they will leave the solar system in a few hundred years.


11881
On average, Earth is hit by an asteroid, approximately 70 metres in diameter, once every few hundred years ... and the resulting energy release is equal to the largest nuclear weapon explosion ever detonated.


11882
On average, Earth is hit by an asteroid, approximately 200 metres in diameter, once every 10,000 years. Such an impact would have serious climatic effects.


11883
On average, Earth is hit by an asteroid, approximately 2 kilometres in diameter, once every million years ... and the resulting energy release is equal to an explosion of nearly a million megatons of TNT, which is one hundred times the explosive yield of all Earth's nuclear weapons. Such an impact would cause a huge global disaster and the deaths of millions of people.


11884
It is estimated that, approximately every hundred million years, Earth is hit by an asteroid of approximately 10 kilometres diameter: That is, of comparable size to the Cretaceous asteroid (of 65 million years ago) which caused major life extinctions.


11885
Every 200,000 years or so, Earth is hit by an asteroid several hundred metres in diameter ... and such impacts would threaten our civilisation.


11886
The risks of asteroids colliding with Earth are among the highest risk-threats to our species ... and they constitute a major reason for space exploration and colonisation. Our species has all its eggs in one basket at the present time.


11887
An anti-matter hydrogen atom has a negatively charged proton and a positively charged electron: The particles have the same mass as ordinary matter, but different charges.


11888
Physicists can make anti-matter in nuclear accelerators and anti-matter can be found in high-energy cosmic rays.


11889
When matter and anti-matter are brought into contact, they annihilate each other with a violent outburst of gamma rays. These anti-matter 'explosions' release all potential participant energy (E=MC²), and are thus 100% efficient as to energy generation.


11890
Gamma-ray astronomical observations indicate that the universe, which we are aware of, consists almost entirely of matter. Very little anti-matter has been detected.


11891
In future, anti-matter may be used for power generation, the neutralisation of gravity, and spacecraft propulsion.


11892
There is a fairly strong argument in favour of establishing a space-colony on Mars. Mars has plenty of sunlight; there is plenty of water underground and in polar ice; the atmosphere is mainly carbon dioxide; and plenty of organic material is available from its moon Phobos. From the water, the colony could manufacture oxygen. Mars beckons as the location of our first space-colony.


11893
All space-missions and probes so far (to mid 1998), indicate that there is no other life in the solar system: Elementary organic material, yes ... but life-forms, no.


11894
Extrapolation of trends, in speed of transportation, indicate that such speeds may approach the speed of light within 50 to 100 years.


11895
If something should happen, it may be considered as a possible future event. The predictor must assess whether it is likely to happen. Sometimes, the publicised prediction of a 'should happen' helps to make it happen.


11896
Readers of this network should guard against assuming that juxtaposition of any particular propositions implies a meaningful connection between them.


11897
The mind is not of itself sufficient to understand all things: Sometimes faith and intuition are also necessary to understanding.


11898
It is possible to know, without the involvement of thought processes.


11899
Arguments and pressures towards space colonisation abound: They include:


11900
As to the costs of space projects, we can probably make a good start with finance equivalent to about .5 of 1% of global GNP per annum ... and each participating nation could be allotted specific tasks (commensurate with their financial contributions), which would stimulate their economies.


11901
A Space Foundation, separate from the United Nations, could be formed ... and member countries of this 'space club' would draw closer together (in trade and other associations), to their mutual benefit.


11902
Our species is the absolute creator-species, which creates itself and creates the universe-environment, as and of itself.


11903
There is no other creator-species in the universe.


11904
No other creator-species exists or can exist: Our species is absolute.


11905
Existence is absolute: Our species is absolute: Our species equates existence.


11906
An absolute has no exclusions. There can be no other creator-species. Our species is existence.


11907
Our species is not involved with the development of other species. There can be no other life-forms in the universe. The chemical pre-conditions of life may well be present, but no other life-forms will be discovered.


11908
Our species has created its life and there are no creators other than our absolute creator-species. Life does not develop spontaneously from non-life: Life is self-created by the creator-species.


11909
The evolved life-species is an absolute integral: There are no other such species.


11910
When a person interprets everything, from an intelligent point of view only, that person is in danger of sacrificing his qualities of intuition and compassion. It is possible to be at once an intellectual genius and a spiritual moron. It is possible to succeed intellectually and to fail as a human being.


11911
A computer language is like a set of parts (words) which can be used to construct word-machines ... that is, computer programmes. However, there is no limit to the nature and potential of these word-machines.


11912
There is a singularity and peculiarity about computer languages which sets them apart from other languages ... and computer programming is able to explore and create in the unknown and vacant areas of phase-space which have so far been unreached by other modes of exploration and creation. Whereas the beginnings of computerisation were largely regurgitative and unimaginative, computer programming now opens up virtually unlimited potentials of creativity and achievement.


11913
There may be no limit to what a creative computer programmer may achieve by the word-machines he invents.


11914
The work of creative digital computer programmers is akin to the work of creative mathematical topologists and to the work of chaos scientists, who used sets of differential equations as starters on analog computers, with resistor and capacitor energy variations. Of course, the topologists place much less emphasis on visual imagery than the chaos and computer scientists, but there are similarities.


11915
Volcanic emissions produce the aerosol/particle layer of the lower stratosphere which initially prevents some incoming solar heat from reaching the lower atmosphere but then, as the layer itself warms up, reduces the altitudinal heat-sink. As warm airs cannot freely rise and cool, the volcanic emission layer acts like a compressor and increases the heat/pressure of trapped warm air, forcing it to colder latitudes for condensation. El Niño is a thermal-pump system which draws up water-vapour from oceans and lands into atmosphere and, as high-cold areas are on land, much of the condensation/precipitation takes place over land. The intensified El Niño transfers water from oceans to land, and has a long-term cooling effect. Man-induced Greenhouse gases reinforce the effect of volcanic emissions and increase the power of the El Niño thermal-pump system.


11916
El Niño weather increases land-waters and enhances the planetary albedo: It signals the onset of an ice-age.


11917
The high incidence of land-waters, associated with iceages, is due to high temperatures and high rainfall just prior to ice-ages. The resulting increase of land-waters enhances planetary albedo, thus lowering temperature and and triggering ice-age onset.


11918
It has been mentioned (in proposition 11796) that, for every one degree Celsius increase of mean global temperature, the incidence of atmospheric water vapour increases by about 6%. Not only does a significant increase in global temperature cause a significant increase in global rainfall, it also causes a significant increase in global snowfall. The thermal pumping system of the quaternary ice-ages is powered by energy from volcanic emissions. The oven-effect, created by these emissions, pumps water into atmosphere, and the consequent precipitation of rain and snow initiates an ice-age. The ice-age runs its course until atmospheric water levels, rainfall and snowfall drop to pre ice-age levels. Then, an interglacial warm period prevails until volcanic emissions initiate another oven-effect regime and consequent re-glaciation.


11920
Antarctic ice-core data, over the past 150,000 years, show that high levels of carbon dioxide invariably precede the onset of glaciations. Greenhouse oven-effect conditions, consequent on volcanic emissions, cause the heavy rainfall and cooling which initiates ice-age re-entry. In effect, volcanic emissions power a heat-pump refrigeration system.


11921
The global warming/cooling cycles, of the ice-ages, are volcanically driven. Volcanic emissions cause a build-up of the stratospheric aerosol and particle layer, with initial cooling and then heating. As the aerosol/particle layer absorbs solar heat, it warms up and reduces the power of the altitudinal heat-sink: This creates the oven-effect which super-heats tropical and summer airs, sending them to the heat-sinks of higher latitudes. The oven-effect warms the oceans, which release more carbon dioxide into atmosphere, increasing the Greenhouse effect and enhancing the oven-effect. The oven-effect acts as a thermal pump, pumping up and then dumping water ... and increasing the amount of water in atmosphere and on land. This has a cooling effect, and initiates the onset of glaciation. Cooling results in less carbon dioxide being released from oceans into atmosphere, reducing the Greenhouse effect. It is noteworthy that Greenhouse gases enhance or abate ice-age downswings or upswings, but they do not initiate them.


11922
Volcanic emissions cause the ice-ages, but what causes the ice-ages to be cyclical?: What causes the onset of downswings and upswings of global temperature? The answer is that the oven-effect is itself cyclical: It heat-pumps up the water, which then acts as a cooling agent. It self-abates by cooling and is re-initiated and re-energised by the thermal power of volcanic emissions.


11923
It is noteworthy that global warming, during an interglacial, results in cooling of the upper atmosphere ... and, at the onset of a glaciation period, the cooling process is enhanced by a cold upper atmosphere which is no longer occluded by lower warm Greenhouse layers.


11924
As volcanism is increasing, it may be thought that the ice-age cycles will intensify in future. However, my researches indicate that as core-explosion heat comes closer to the surface, greater heat-flux through the crust will eventually bring the quaternary ice-ages to an end. The indications are that the coming ice-age will be of lesser intensity and duration than the previous one ... and that it will be Earth's last ice-age.


11925
The huge 'Noah' flood probably occurred at the end of the last ice-age, 10,000 years ago.


11926
In literature, there are many examples of commentative philosophy which invite and evoke thoughtful reflection. Le Carre's work is liberally sprinkled with comments such as ... 'some people are cursed with too much loyalty, for a day could come when there was nothing left for them to serve'. Literature, including poetry, is valuable in many ways, and not least is the way in which it broadens and deepens one's philosophy in human experience.


11927
All qualities are transfinite ... and what is there of a human being which is not qualitative? Physical things are qualitative; thoughts are qualitative; emotions are qualitative; values are qualitative; and spiritual life is qualitative. The human persona is wholly qualitative.


11928
Those, who have left their outward physicality, retain their transfinite personas. We tend to believe that they are no longer with us: Not so! Think kindly of them, and they will be spiritually present.


11929
My spiritual friends say ... 'there is no time where we are'.


11930
Transfinitely, time and space are notional.


11931
We cannot see our spirit-friends with the faculties of our outward physicality, but we can see them with our inner sight.


11932
I see the essential species' awareness as the holy grail.


11933
The greater a predictor's empathy with species' awareness, the greater the accuracy of his/her predictions.


11934
Can we know the future transfinitely? ... yes and no. Yes we can have transfinite prehension of what the species will do, but the actions of the species are never preordained: The species is dynamic and unconstrained in all its modes and powers.


11935
Certain pre-knowledge may be counterproductive, as a constraint upon species' powers.


11936
Intellectual dilettanti, sophists, casuists and debaters are fine if you are of their kind ... but I am not. To me, the absolute God is wholly in each and every concept, and to compare or argue a case God v God is futile and pointless. Certainly God is wholly in the debaters and the debates, and that is fine. All I am saying here is that I am not of the debating kind.


11937
What is the use of a hammer that never stops hammering?; what is the use of a chisel if you can't stop its chiselling? 'I stop and let the wood speak to me', said the sculptor. What is the use of a mind if you can't stop its thinking? 'I feel the rose and merge with it and become one with it', said the mystic. And what have love and compassion to do with the intellect?


11938
Many allow themselves to be constantly dominated by their intellect and its powers of reasoning and rationalisation. They never 'shut up' mentally: They are incurably garrulous intellectually ... never giving their intuition, prehension, and spirit an opportunity to intervene or contribute. Their uncontrolled intellect is often a liability. To develop one's control of the intellect, disciplines such as those of raja yoga can be helpful.


11939
No things in the universe exist without the minds which perceive them. Think of minds as agents, catalysts, principals, or how you will, but no thing of our environment exists without the minds which perceive it.


11940
When one's consciousness becomes one with the species' consciousness, one's creative and mandatory powers are enormously increased.


11941
The species' consciousness is at once the source and expression of all points of view. It is an awareness of holistic prehension.


11942
Energy, time and space are creations and functions of the living species: No living species, then no energy/space/ time.


11943
Our species is remarkable for its ability to create energy/space/time expressions. It finitises. In energy/ space/time terms, our species self-creates its physicality and its physical environment.


11944
In the third AD-millenium, the species will use DNA and other techniques to upgrade human qualities and abilities in readiness for the universal space diaspora. In addition to human upgrading, the species will develop means of space exploration, transport and migration (including space life-support systems). All human activities will subserve these main futurings.


11945
Understandings, of the soul/heart/mind together as one, are far more reliable than understandings of the mind alone.


11946
In this proposition, we speak of the essentially transfinite human being, which lives on when the physical body ceases to exist. This being is a self-aware presence which uses living minds to communicate its messages and administer its powers. It is open to invocation: It is sufficient for the living mind to think empathically about the transfinite persona (bodied or unbodied) and lo it becomes present to the living mind. Bodied and unbodied personas interact in many ways, including the following:


11947
The evolution and empowerment of transfinite and mental personas has outpaced the processes of physical evolution.


11948
Transfinite personas are able to influence events and outcomes.


11949
If a physically-unbodied persona seems really present to you mentally, is it in truth real or just a creation of the mind? But, then, all things are mental creations and all things are mentally real.


11950
Absolutely, time and space are creations which our species invents, as means of expressing its personality and its will. We should remember always that time and space are functions of the species' will, and subject to that will. Time and space are not constraints upon our will but subject to our will. (Note: As the species is absolute, the species' will is our will).


11951
Our species is a perfect democracy, being wholly in each of its parts and acting as one.


11952
When our past tends to become dim, it is because we convince ourselves that it is behind us and that we are moving ever further away from it ... not so! We, and our experiences, are transfinite and our past is fully with us now.


11953
Tragedy may arise from a conflict of rights, loyalties, love ... or just plain conflict ... as we, who are absolutely one, are imperatived by force of circumstance to harm each other. But, although there may be grievous hurt, absolute and spiritual advantage always issues from the grief.


11954
There are usually alternative sets of computer programming instructions available. Computer programming calls for logicality and creativity: Creativity as to what can be achieved and how it can be achieved.


11955
An ion engine is a type of jet-propulsion engine which may become important for propelling or controlling spacecraft. It consists of a unit producing a beam of ions, which are accelerated by an electric or electromagnetic field. Reaction forces, from the high-speed ions, cause propulsion in much the same way as that caused by exhaust gases of a rocket. A separate beam of electrons or ions, of opposite polarity to the propelling beam, must also be ejected from the engine to enable recombination to take place behind the vehicle (to ensure that the vehicle does not become charged). Ion engines provide high specific impulse and therefore low propellant consumption. The three main components of an ion engine are the power generator, the propellant feed, and the thruster. The power generator may be a nuclear reactor or a solar-energy collector. If it is the former, a gas turbine is coupled to the reactor and the turbine drives an electric generator. A solar-energy unit provides electricity direct. The propellant chosen needs to have an ion of medium mass (low mass for high specific impulse, high mass for high thrust), and a low first ionisation potential. Caesium and mercury are materials currently envisaged as suitable propellants. The thruster consists of an ioniser to produce the ions, an accelerator to provide and shape the accelerating field, and a neutraliser (usually an electron emitter) to neutralise the fast-moving ion beam after ejection.


11956
By our developing creative intelligence, we will upgrade our species genetically, so that it will be fit and able to populate the universe.


11957
We are creating ourselves as a cosmic species. The stars are one with our being, and are one with our growing: Our future is in the star-planets. What our species has so far achieved is only Part One.


11958
The economics of our species is so designed that demand needs to be stimulated and sustained by great projects which are outside the scope of customary demand. Wars and cathedrals are examples of this. Now we have another great project ... namely the exploration and colonisation of astrospace. The point I make here is that our species and its ambience are designed, as to need and means, for the diaspora into astrospace.


11959
The core-explosion, of 180mya, has provided the conditions required for our evolution as a creatively intelligent astro-species ... and also a 'burning of boats' scenario whereby our species is compelled and impelled into astro-mode (by the curtailment of Earth habitation remainder time). And, as a self-creating species, we create things so.


11960
Globally, over 70% of all cultivated land is devoted to cereal grains: These grains provide the bulk of humanity's nutritional needs. Agriculture employs nearly one-half of the world's labour force in 1998. Wheat, rice and corn dominate grain production.


11961
The per kilo calorie loss in grain-to-meat conversion is great. Grain eaten directly provides up to ten times the calories than if eaten indirectly as meat.


11962
The power of population has been more than matched by the power of innovation. A tiny percentage (2%-3%) of the Canada/USA population grows more food than their countrymen can eat. Globally, under-nourished populations lack food by reason of their lack of purchasing power, and not by any lack of available supplies.


11963
The quaternary ice-age cycles are caused by periodic upsurges of volcanism, due to the 180mya core explosion. Why does increased volcanism fluctuate, causing cycles rather than uninterrupted cooling? The reason is that rotational precession, of core over mantle (see prop. 9755), causes intermittent dousing of the core-explosion heat-beam. As this action may be likened to the way a lighthouse works, we will call it the 'lighthouse effect'. Each time the core-explosion heat-beam is in sync with an active surface construction zone, there is an increase of volcanism: When not, there is a decrease of volcanism: Hence the ice-age cycles. As the number and extent of active construction zones increases, glacials become more frequent and the duration of both glacials and interglacials is reduced. It has been remarked elsewhere that, as the core-heat arrives in force at the surface, there will be a general heating of the biosphere, which will bring the ice-age sequence to an end. The lesser ice-age, which we are now entering, will be the last one.


11964
Genetic engineering is recombinant DNA technology: It involves the alteration of the characters of an organism by inserting genes from another organism into its DNA.


11965
Genetic codes are the means by which genetic information (in DNA) controls the manufacture of specific proteins by the cell.


11966
Transcription is the process in living cells by which the genetic information (of DNA) is transferred to a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) as the first step in protein synthesis.


11967
Gene therapy is the application of genetic engineering techniques to alter or replace defective genes.


11968
Gene cloning involves the production of exact copies of a particular gene or genes, using genetic engineering techniques. The DNA, containing the target genes, is split into fragments using restriction enzymes. These fragments are then inserted into cloning vectors, such as bacterial plasmids or bacteriophages, which transfer the recombinant DNA to suitable host cells, such as the bacterium E coli. Inside the host cell, the recombinant DNA undergoes replication ... forming a colony of cells containing the cloned target gene.


11969
An enzyme is a protein that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions. Each enzyme is specific to a particular reaction or group of similar reactions.


11970
Many enzymes require the association of certain non-protein cofactors in order to function. The substrate molecule, which undergoes reaction, binds to a specific active site on the enzyme molecule to form a short-lived intermediate (an enzyme-substrate complex). Following the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex, the substrate molecule undergoes a chemical reaction and is converted into a new product. The introduction of an enzyme-substrate complex can increase (by a factor of 10 to power 20) the rate at which the reaction proceeds to form the product.


11971
Enzyme production is governed by a cell's genes. Enzyme activity is further controlled by PH changes, alterations in concentrations of cofactors, feedback effects of reaction products, activation by other enzymes, and hormones.


11972
Enzymes are classified, according to the type of reaction they catalyse, into ...


11973
Restriction enzymes can cleave and destroy molecules and viruses of foreign DNA ... and many bacteria produce them to protect the cell by destroying invading viruses. Restriction enzymes are widely used in genetic engineering.


11974
A gene probe is a single-stranded DNA or RNA fragment which is used in genetic engineering to search for a particular gene or other micro-bio sequence. The probe has base sequence complementarity with the target sequence, so that the two strands (of double helix) are attracted together.


11975
A plasmid is a structure in cells consisting of DNA that can exist and replicate independently of the chromosomes. In bacterial cells, plasmids provide genetic instructions for certain cell activities (e.g. Resistance to antibiotic drugs). They can be transferred from cell to cell in a bacterial colony. Bacterial plasmids are used to produce recombinant DNA for gene cloning.


11976
A bacteriophage (phage) is a virus which is parasitic within a bacterium. Each phage is specific for only one type of bacterium. Phages are used experimentally to identify bacteria, to control certain manufacturing processes (such as cheese production) that depend on bacteria, and, because they can alter the genetic make-up of bacterial cells, they are important tools in genetic engineering as cloning vectors.


11977
A prokaryote is any organism in which the genetic material is not enclosed in a cell nucleus. Bacteria are prokaryotes. Eukaryotes are organisms consisting of cells in which the genetic material is contained within a distinct nucleus. All organisms except bacteria are eukaryotes. It is believed that eukaryotic cells evolved as symbiotic associations of prokaryotes.


11978
Isomers are:


11979
An isomerase is an enzyme which catalyses the rearrangement of atoms within a molecule, thereby converting one isomer into another.


11980
Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a form of DNA, prepared in the laboratory using messenger RNA (mRNA) as template. cDNA has a base sequence that is complementary to that of the mRNA template. cDNA is used, in gene cloning, for the expression of eukaryote genes in prokaryote host cells.


11981
Nucleotides are organic compounds consisting of a nitrogen containing purine or pyrimidine base linked to a ribose sugar or deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate group. DNA and RNA are made up of long chains of nucleotides. The nucleotides are, so to say, the letters of the genetic alphabet. Long chains of nucleotides are called polynucleotides.


11982
The DNA replication process is controlled by the enzyme DNA polymerase. Replication occurs at rates of between 50 nucleotides per second (in mammals) and 500 nucleotides per second (in bacteria).


11983
Professor Matthew During (of the Auckland School of Medicine) is developing a gene oral-pill therapy, using virus-shells for the delivery of healthy genes to replace defective genes. He started with work on lactose tolerance, and is now (Oct. 1998) moving on to tackle diabetes.


11984
The two mainstreams of bio-engineering are ...


11985
1999 will be historically significant in that our species will now start to improve itself quickly by genetic adaptation, instead of very slowly by evolution ... and this adaptation will be voluntary.


11986
Gene therapy will quickly become widely used and accepted. Whereas many people will reject genetic engineering, they will accept genetic 'pill therapy' which corrects defects causing diabetes and a wide range of ailments. Soon thereafter, the public will accept gene therapy which will not only correct for one's lifetime but will also correct one's inheritable DNA ... and this, of course, involves genetic engineering. Apart from dedicated opponents of gene management, the general public will be accepting inheritable DNA adaptation by the year 2010.


11987
By 2010, over 10 million people, globally, will have been subjected to genetic adaptation in one way or another.


11988
By 2010, gene therapy will enable:

Essential to the above will be their voluntary nature.


11989
In the field of genetics and bio-technology generally, extremely important therapies and improvements will become subject to patents ... and patent owners will virtually hold society to ransom. Highly desirable medicines and treatments will be very expensive and only affordable by the rich. Initially, large fortunes will be made but, by 2005, technology will largely escape from patent constraints.


11990
Living cells have an electrical potential difference between their interior and exterior surfaces. Electrodiagnosis utilises equipment that amplifies and records changes in potential, especially in those cells that are highly specialised electrical conductors (heart and skeletal muscle or nerve cells).


11991
Neurons generate electrical impulses which are propagated synaptically.


11992
When a nerve impulse arrives at a presynaptic terminal, a chemical transmitter is released, which diffuses through the fluid of the synaptic cleft. The transmitter enables an electrochemical impulse to pass between neurons.


11993
Bacteria, that can fix nitrogen, may be added to the soil to increase its fertility. In tropical countries, the cyanobacterium anabaena is added to rice paddies to increase soil fertility.


11994
As an absolute species, we decide what to do ... and our decision stems as much from our future as from our past and present. Our decision to people the star-planets is already 'written in the stars'.


11995
When, in gestalting wholes from sense-data, we come to seemingly illogical conclusions, such conclusions may be useful ... in a similar way to which spontaneous variations of the species may be useful. The species was developing for a long time before Aristotelian logic arrived on the scene! Formal logic is a tool of limited application.


11996
Survival is the central purpose and motivation of nations, tribes, families, individuals and businesses alike. The ways of ensuring survival are infinitely diverse and creative ... but effective they must necessarily be.


11997
Businesses are generally very slow in recognising conditions under which concern with operational problems must give way to concern with strategic problems. Preoccupation with micro aspects tends to blind management to important macro aspects.


11998
The past is like tailings left behind by an alluvial gold-mining rig. Interest and information is processed out in the present, and left-overs are tailed into the past. (See also propositions 6845 - 6847).


11999
We are apt to think of the future as unclear and equivocal ... while we are apt to think of the present as clear and unequivocal. But, if the present is clear and unequivocal, why do so many people disagree as to what is presently taking place? Some people see events clearly, and some do not. Tho5e who see present events more clearly are likely to see future events more clearly. Successful predictors are likely to be perspicacious.


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