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Network Propositions
11200 - 11399

Genes are selfish: All they care about is their own replication.

Parasitic memes clearly do exist. Ask not whether a rumour is true: Ask instead how it spreads. (Note: A meme is an idea that, like a gene, can replicate and evolve).

Parasitic memes force minds to evolve mental immune systems. In present conditions, of rapid change, rigid mental immune systems may become a dangerous handicap. Memes that seal the mind against new ideas, may also shield parasitic claptrap from the test of truth.

Much of the history of philosophy and science may be seen as a search for better mental immune systems ... that is, for better ways to reject the false, the worthless, and the damaging.

A regular and thorough review/evaluate/cull process is vital, in order to rid the mind of inhibiting parasitic memes and engrams.

We are now evolving a tradition of technological foresight.

Science is an evolutionary process ... a field where ideas compete for acceptance, and acceptance moves from the seemingly true to the seemingly more true.

Scientists seek ideas that enable the widest range of accurate predictions to be made.

Science aims at knowing, while technology aims at doing. In science, absolute proofs are illusive but, in technology, actual accomplishments are themselves indisputable proofs of real objectives and products achieved.

A cell replicates by copying the parts inside its membrane bag, sorting them into two clumps, and then pinching the bag in two. Artificial replicators could be built to work in a similar way, but using assemblers instead of ribosomes.

A ribosome consists of three subunits of RNA and protein: It can associate with messenger RNA (mRNA) and is the site of synthesis in the cytoplasm of polypeptides encoded by the mRNA.

With assemblers, molecular engineers will build entire computers smaller than a synapse and operating a million times faster.

A fast enzyme, such as carbonic anhydrase or ketosteroid isomerase, can process almost a million molecules per second.

As regular doubling means exponential growth, replicators multiply exponentially unless restrained, as by lack of room or resources.

Concern about controlling rapid new replicators will soon become very important.

Micro bio-assemblers will be able to make virtually anything from common materials, without labour and without any ecological negatives. They will transform technology and the economy at their roots, opening a new world of possibilities.

As genes can provide for evolving behaviour, so they can provide for evolving mental models. Flexible organisms can vary their models. Models need not be instinctive: They can evolve in the course of a single life.

In human cultures, with their language and pictures, valuable new models of how the world works can outlast their creators and spread worldwide.

Memes (replicating mental patterns) may be seen as agents in the mind that are formed by teaching and imitation.

Computers can be instructed to change their own instructions ... and they can experiment and learn.

The means of technology evolve far more swiftly than the genes of biology.

Turing asked ... 'may not machines carry out something which ought to be described as thinking, but which is very different from what a man does?'.

Advanced artificial intelligence systems could change the patterns and balance of world military power.

Developed by Professor Douglas Lenat and others at Stanford, EURISKO has been designed to explore new areas of knowledge. It is guided by heuristics (self-learning systems) ... in effect, by various rule of thumb which provide leads to solutions.

EURISKO has invented electronic devices. In future, automated engineering systems will invent molecular machines and molecular electronic devices, aided by software for molecular simulations. Eventually, software systems will be able to create bold new designs without human help. Will such abilities be classed as intelligent?

Future artificial intelligence technology may enable a structure, similar to the brain, to fit into less than a cubic centimetre ... and, with shorter signal paths and faster transmission/ this AI brain could be ten million times faster than a human brain.

Replicating assemblers will require no labour to build, once the first exists. With robotic devices to assemble parts into larger systems, the entire manufacturing process from assembling molecules to assembling skyscrapers could be free of labour costs.

Production systems, based on replicating assemblers, will be able to operate on chemical or electrical energy. Such systems will convert solar to chemical energy, like plants ... or solar to electrical energy, like solar cells. Solar cells are more efficient than plants. With replicating assemblers to build solar collectors, fuel and electric power will cost little.

Nano-systems, by accessing individual atoms, will access atomic energy.

Assemblers threaten to bring hazards and weapons more dangerous than any yet seen.

Protein machines, in the right molecular environment, will work whether they remain in a functioning cell or whether the rest of the cell was ground up or washed away days before. Molecular biomachines know nothing of 'life' and 'death'.

Biologists sometimes define life as the ability to grow, replicate, and respond to stimuli.

Biologists already use antibodies to tag proteins; enzymes to cut and splice DNA; and viral syringes to inject edited DNA into bacteria. In the future, they will use as5embler-buoilt nanomachines to probe and modify cells.

There are many instances in nature which demonstrate:

With cell-repair machines, the potential for life extension will be realised. Cells may then be repaired so long as their distinctive structures remain intact, and cells that have been destroyed may be replaced. Either way, health will be restored. By restoring all the cells and tissues of an ageing body to a youthful structure, repair machines will be able to greatly extend life-spans.

Informal surveys show that most people would prefer bio-stasis to dissolution.

In biostasis, the process of solidification without freezing is known as vitrification. The vitrification process packs glassy protectant solidly around the molecules of each cell. Liquid nitrogen temperatures will preserve human bodies for centuries, if need be, with little change. The techniques of biostasis and reversibility are improving rapidly.

In the brain, proteins shape nerve cells and link one nerve cell to the next. When nerve cells change their behaviour, they change their patterns of protein.

Memory and personality are embodied in preservable brain structures.

Moulds and bacteria compete for food, and some moulds (such as penicillin) have evolved to secrete poisons that kill bacteria.

Genetic evolution has limited life to a system based on DNA, RNA, and ribosomes ... but memetic evolution will bring life-like machines based on nanocomputers and nanoassemblers.

Memetic evolution' refers to the evolution of the creative intelligence.

Assemblers will be able to build all that ribosomes can, and more; assembler-based replicators will be able to do all that life can, and more.

Tough, omnivorous bacteria could be developed which would out-compete natural bacteria. Such synthetic bacteria could reduce the biosphere to dust in short time. Dangerous bacteria-type replicators could be very difficult to control.

We need to find way5 to live with thinking machines ... and to make them law-abiding citizens. (Note: This is a very naive proposition!).

To destroy all human life with nano-life replicators would require only a single speck made of ordinary elements. Such replicators give nuclear war some company as a potential agency of human extinction, giving a broader context to extinction as a universal concern.

What humans generally fail to comprehend is that creative intelligence is fast becoming independent of human forms. Humanity tends to think of creative intelligence as inseparable from human forms ... not so! It is now reasonable to think in terms of creative intelligence using the human race to further its own ends. Alternatively, it is also now reasonable to think of creative intelligence as an agency of metamorphosis.

For creative intelligence to create forms of nano-life which are survivally more efficient than human life is for creative intelligence to shift its basis of expression and habitation from human life to nano-life: What we are referring to here is an on-going, in-process metamorphosis.

An implication of future nano-technology is that political states may become more organic in nature. By internal domination and integration, they may develop a kind of organic cohesion.

With advanced technology, and little need for workers, states may discard people, for control or other purposes.

A combination of nano-technology and advanced AI will make possible intelligent, effective robots. With such robots, a state could prosper while discarding anyone, or even (in principle) everyone.

Advanced technology will make workers unnecessary and genocide easy.

Modern biochemistry leads by small steps to nano-technology ... and modern computer technology leads by small steps to artificial intelligence (AI). No line of development defines a natural stopping point. The development is inevitable.

Nano technologies will be more potent and less controllable than nuclear weapons. Dangerous replicators will be microscopic. Inspection and policing, of production and use, will be futile.

Nano technology will probably lead to direct sharing of thoughts and emotions, by linking neural structures via transducers and electromagnetic signals. (Note: A transducer is any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form).

Nano technology will lead to self-replicating systems which will be able to provide food, health care, shelter, and other requirements. Small, self-sufficient communities may reap the benefits of this.

Chemists have now started td speak of 'nanochemistry', and molecular self-assembly has emerged as a field in its own right.

In the field of nuclear technology, mankind has lost effective control of that which it has created ... and the creation may be said to have gained a life of its own.

In the field of nano technology, mankind will quickly lose control of omnivorous rogue bacteria which out-compete natural bacteria. Here also, the creation will take on a life of its own.

Tough nano rogue bacteria may in future be used in biochemical warfare and could eliminate combatant populations and could spread lethally worldwide.

All finite matter is transfinitely 'centred' on a universal black-hole singularity. This singularity attracts all matter, and this attraction is called gravity.

Threats, to the survival of the human race, may be placed in three main categories, as follows:

Threats, to the survival of the human race, which relate to the creative intelligence, include:

Threats, to the survival of the human race, which relate to the 180mya core-explosion, include:

Threats, to the survival of the human race, which relate to stellar phenomena, include:

There is a possibility that the creative intelligence may develop nano life-forms, of a self-programming type, which are truly and creatively intelligent and self-replicating ... and which are immune to attacks from both natural and artificial bacteria and viri. We may be destined to 'seed' the universe with such nano life-forms.

As creative intelligence is becoming more and more independent of physical human forms, our species may be metamorphosing to super-intelligent nano life-forms. Another viewpoint would be that creative intelligence, as a parasitic phenomenon, would move from human hosts to nano hosts.

At least two-thirds of all living species are parasitic.

It will be extremely difficult to impart qualitative self-programming capabilities to nano-bios. Human qualities (such as morality, compassion, justice, and aesthetic appreciation) will be mainly non-transferable to synthetic nano-bios.

If unrestrained, the nano vector leads to:

While the core-explosion will probably cause the Earth to become uninhabitable within the next 60,000 years, nanotechnology will probably enable our species to be seeded elsewhere long before that time. As it seems certain that our species will have the requisite nano capability within 100 years, species survival seems likely, provided that radiation and other threats can be overcome.

Nano bio-technology will enable us to launch innumerable nano space vehicles from our orbiting satellites: Each vehicle carrying nano life-forms with self-seeding and replicating capability.

Our species is destined to be seeded and developed throughout the universe.

The nano vector indicates that the conversion of inorganic mass to biomass will be speeded up. Nano technology represents a 'water-shed' development, by which this conversion will eventually become exponential and 'explosive'.

As the Earth's core-explosion comes closer to the surface and it becomes imperative for our species to relocate elsewhere in the solar system, nano-bio capabilities will be of key importance in making the means of relocation practical and economic.

Existence is an absolute, which has finite and transfinite expressions: This gives rise to three viewpoint categories ... the absolute, finite and transfinite viewpoints. From a finite view, the absolute appears as fait accompli, but it is not so: Each of the three viewpoint categories is creative and dynamic. Existence is nowhere 'set in concrete', and it is always subject to the creative will. From the transfinite view, one can see both the absolute and finite views: Transfinity bridges and merges them. Transfinity operates in its own reality ... and there are transfinite beings which participate in and influence the absolute and finite dimensions: The three dimensions operate conjointly.

The transfinite dimension is peopled by those who have 'passed on', and by those still physically living who are transfinitely aware. Transfinity is also peopled by a host of mystical, mental and fictional beings. Any being, which is conceived or believed, exists in the transfinite dimension. It is a creative sphere, a birthing sphere ... it is a sphere where any being may live, free and unconstrained. It is a wonderful milieu for communication, sharing, comforting and learning, at the vibe level.

Most transfinite beings are 'stand-alone' independent living beings. However, it is important to note that some transfinite beings are only enlivened when we give them attention, interest and belief. Such beings can only affect the finite world via our agency.

To one, who has grasped the possibility of spiritual attainment, life holds no other goal. No human purpose can compare with that which transcends the human state.

Insight into one's own mental processes allows prediction of what others desire or will to do.

William James suggested ... 'consciousness is what you might expect in a nervous system grown too large to steer itself'.

John Crook sees consciousness as a processing of the information provided by the senses to form an analogue of the exterior.

Darkly, Einstein commented ... 'as for me, the normal objective of my thought affords no insight into the dark places of human will and feeling: Man has within him a lust for hatred and destruction'.

Consciousness continues regardless of what area of cerebral cortex is removed, in brain surgery. However, consciousness is lost when the function of the higher brain stem is interrupted Dy injury, pressure or disease. All regions of the brain may be involved in normal conscious processes, but the indispensable substratum of consciousness lies outside the cerebral cortex, probably in the upper brain stem.

Cells supporting the sleep/wake state may be localised in the brain stem, and the alert/wake state might be supported by these cells. The neurones of the reticular activating system (RAS) are located at many places in the brain stem, and they carry messages upwards to the cortex and also further down the brain stem. Processes from the RAS neurones can fan out over the entire cortex and can influence a very great part of the brain. Neuronal activity within the RAS is the indispensable substratum of consciousness.

Faculties that are dominant or advantaged in the left brain-hemisphere (of a right-handed person) are the faculty of speech; right-handed skills such as writing; verbal memory; superior comprehension; and calculation. Faculties that are dominant or advantaged in the right brain-hemisphere (of a right-handed person) are left-handed manipulation; memory for shapes; mute and limited comprehension of language; and superior comprehension of topography and faces.

Lt has been found that if a subject is required to match a photograph to what was seen, the experience of the right mute hemisphere dominated. The right mute hemisphere is much more proficient than the left as far as aesthetics is concerned ... but the left, talking and analytical hemisphere, is not able to tell beauty from beast. The right hemisphere may initiate an action, and the left has the task of explaining and justifying the action. Justification usually comes after an action, rather than before it.

Many areas of the brain determine actions that, once initiated, are then interpreted by the left-hemisphere language system, which constructs a theory as to their meaning.

Information may exist in the brain and can express itself decisively in movement, while at the same time be unavailable to the language system. It is noteworthy that the right hemisphere, separately from the left, is a conscious hemisphere ... and it has inherited all the learning procedure. It was part of the combined human brain at one time, and so it has a great deal of memory and general mental ability built into it. It should be borne in mind that the left and right hemispheres constitute a partnership, and that they are both linked to the stem and also linked by the collosum bridge.

The right mute hemisphere is possessed of information. It is conscious of something which the left talking hemisphere is not. We can almost say that there are two conscious beings in the one skull. The left hemisphere is the talking, analytical and interpretive one ... and the right mute hemisphere which is especially skilled in spatial-temporal relationships and in music and in all matters of aesthetic perception. Although the right is capable of primitive linguistic recognition, it can never express anything in language.

Matters of reasoning, logic and value judgements are the prerogatives of the left hemisphere, while the right is more instinctive and automatic in its operations. It should be borne in mind, when comparing the functions of the two hemispheres, that most of our pertinent knowledge is based on experiments where the corpus collosum has been cut. Where the collosum has not been cut, we have two to three hundred million nerve fibres inter-firing to and from almost all parts of the cortex ... and the cortex operates essentially as one entity.

Surgical division of the corpus collosum (which bridges the two hemispheres) can result in two independent states of consciousness ... the one on the left side having no idea of what the right side of the brain knows and can act upon.

Rather than any unitary awareness being resident in the brain stem, it may be seen as an essential orchestrating ingredient to the conscious process going on in the entire nervous system.

Imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET) enables neurologists to see the brain of a conscious person in action. These methods allow seeing the utilisation of energy which comes from brain cell activity. When a region is active, glucose is burned, carbon dioxide released, and blood flow increases.

Cognitive consciousness in humans depends on ascending inputs that originate far below the geographic borders of the brain cortex.

The most spectacular evolutionary development has been the great increase in the size of the brain of hominids over the past three million years, as follows:

Australopithecus 3,000,000ya brain cap. 400cc
Homo habilis 2,000,000ya brain cap. 600cc
Pithicanthropus 500,000ya brain cap. 1,000cc
Neanderthal 300,000ya brain cap. 1,500cc
Cromagnon 50,000ya brain cap. 1,500cc

Toolmaking, fire-making and language developments have been concomitant with brain development. Also the change to upright posture gave a great impetus to brain evolution. It is noteworthy that most of the hominid development has taken place during the quaternary period ... during the ice-ages of the past 2.25 million years. Survival during ice-ages would pre-require cave-dwelling and fire-making skills, and one may reliably conclude that the more intelligent and creative would be the survivors and successful progenitors.

Approximately 10,000ya, the change from being nomadic hunters and gatherers to being settled cereal and animal farmers has had a profound influence on human development. The new regimen has allowed man the time and opportunity to think, communicate, swap ideas, invent, learn ... and to create works of art and architecture. The term 'civilisation' encapsulates all this.

Anthropological evidence indicates that human brain capacities and potentials have developed progressively, over the past two million years, beyond any requirements of Darwin natural selection. It almost seems as if this development has been largely influenced by future needs rather than present needs.

Transfinitely, the absolute attracts the finite: This attraction manifests as gravity. From a finite viewpoint, the absolute is perceived as singularity. As the species evolves to greater self-realisation, of its absolute nature, it becomes more subject to the attraction force of singularity. It's realisation of absoluteness speeds up, and its rate of evolutionary development speeds up.

Our species gains exponentially in capability and in creative intelligence and in the ability to create. The creative process is transfinite, in nature and operation ... and, from a finite point of view, it operates exponentially and gives rise to an exponential rate of species' development.

All things which are possible to accomplish will be accomplished, and all that will be accomplished will be rationalisable and justifiable.

The ultimate goal of yoga is simple advaita ... that is, oneness with the Absolute.

All thoughts are counterproductive to the achievement and continuance of the advaita state: This state is a purely spiritual one.

A saint who has submitted utterly to the Divine will and most lacking in ego, is at the same time the most dominant and outstanding in character, and the most individual because he has sacrificed his individuality.

As an Absolute is wholly in each of its parts, a part can never be separate from its whole.

As a part can never be separate from its whole, all particulation is somewhat illusory ... for that which seems to be part is indeed the whole.

The death of a part is somewhat illusory for the part which appears to die lives on in the part and parts which live on.

All parts are always the whole but, when one part consumes another part, the wholeness aspect becomes more manifest ... and the parts are perceived to merge into one being.

That which consumes, manifestly becomes that which it consumes.

The particulation of existence into temporal parts is somewhat illusory, for the whole of existence is wholly in each of its moments.

The moment which seems to pass lives on in moments of present and future ... and all these moments are absolute and inseparable.

The creative intelligence is that quality by which the absolute species self-creates.

The global warming advocates place great emphasis on the increase of carbon dioxide in atmosphere, mainly from the burning of fossil fuels ... and their belief in warming is reinforced by evidence of polar warming, and by the warming of surface tropical waters. The general alarm is quite understandable.

On the other hand, my researches emphasise the cooling effects of increased volcanism, and indicate that El Niño is caused by increased volcanism ... and that El Niño will result in increased global rainfall and increased cloud-cover and increased planetary albedo. My researches indicate that Earth is in ice-age re-entry mode. It is noted that carbon dioxide concentration is characteristically high during ice-age re-entry.

Over the past 2.25 million years, mean temperature has been lower than present for 63% of the time ... and, over the past 70,000 years, mean temperature has been lower than present for 91S of the time. The present interglacial period peaked at 16.5 degrees C 6,700 years ago, and the long-term trend has been downwards since then. My work indicates that the basic causation of ice-age cycles is volcanic and due to core-heat coming closer to the surface ... and that man-created carbon dioxide will not have any significant effect on ice-age cycles.

If I am right, the panic over carbon dioxide emissions is needless. During ice-age re-entry, greenhouse warming gives temporary respite, and may even be regarded as beneficial.

It is not easy for global-warming greenhouse theorists to explain the existence of periods of relatively stable global temperatures at times of continuing increase of greenhouse gas concentration ... for instance, the periods 1861-1920 and the mid 1940's to the early 19701s.

Estimates of the present planetary albedo vary from 31% to 33%. An analysis of the 31% estimate is as follows: Solar energy reflected back into space ...

By clouds 21%
By atmospheric scattering 6%
By the Earth's surface 4%
Total 31%

On average, clouds cover about 60% of the Earth's surface.

The albedo of a complete cloud overcast ranges from .44 to .50 for cirrostratus, and is .90 for cumulonimbus. Comparatively, stratocumulus rates at .60.

One writer on climatology estimates that a 15-20% increase of low-cloud coverage could cancel out the greenhouse warming effect.

The albedo for a calm water surface is only .02-.03 for a solar elevation angle exceeding 60 degrees, but it is more than .50 when the angle is 15 degrees.

Volcanic activity releases approximately one billion kilograms of sulphur annually, as sulphur dioxide.

Northern hemisphere temperature variations 1880-1980 show significant correlation with variations in the incidence of volcanic aerosols. It is also noteworthy that there is no significant correlation between Northern hemisphere temperature variations and the incidence of carbon dioxide: And there is no significant correlation between Northern hemisphere temperature variations and solar energy cycles.

CFC molecules rise slowly into the stratosphere and then move poleward, being decomposed by photochemical processes into chlorine after an estimated average lifetime of some 55-116 years. Man-produced, CFC's were not released into atmosphere until the 19301s.

The mass of natural aerosols in atmosphere is estimated to be 4-5 times greater than the mass of man-produced aerosols in atmosphere, on a global scale.

Forest destruction causes an increase in albedo of perhaps 10% locally.

The large-scale effect of deforestation on global surface albedo is estimated to be less than .001.

Some scientists have commented that global warming may cause an increase in high-latitude snowfall, leading to an increase in the volume of global ice and a lowering of sea-levels. (Note: I concede that there is some evidence of polar warming, but there is a lack of evidence of global warming).

It is estimated that approximately 50% of carbon dioxide produced from fossil-fuel burning is taken up by the oceans.

The oceans play a key role in the global carbon cycle. Photosynthesis by phytoplankton generates organic compounds of aqueous carbon dioxide. Eventually, some biogenic matter sinks down to deeper waters, where it decomposes and oxidises into carbon dioxide. This process transfers carbon dioxide from surface waters to deep ocean waters. Oceanic biomass 'pumps' carbon dioxide from atmosphere to surface waters and thence to deep ocean waters.

The average time for a carbon dioxide molecule to be dissolved in the ocean, or taken up by plants, is about four years.

Photosynthetic activity on land involves 50 billion tonnes of carbon annually: This represents 7% of total atmospheric carbon.

The major fluxes of atmospheric carbon dioxide are a result of solution/dissolution in the ocean, and photosynthesis/respiration and decomposition by biota.

The major reservoirs of carbon are in limestone sediments and fossil fuels on land, and in the world oceans. The atmosphere contains about 750 billion tonnes of carbon, corresponding to a carbon dioxide concentration of 350 parts per million.

The presence of particles and aerosols in the atmosphere increases the back-scatter of short-wave radiation, thereby increasing the planetary albedo and causing cooling ... but the effect on infra-red radiation is one of surface warming. Natural aerosols probably cause general cooling.

The 'Maunder Minimum' of sunspot activity, 1645-1705, is believed by some to coincide with the most severe conditions of the Little Ice Age in Europe and North America.

An increase of ozone above 30 km's absorbs relatively more incoming short-wave radiation, causing a net decrease of surface temperature. An increase of ozone below 25 km's absorbs relatively more outgoing long-wave radiation, causing a net increase of surface temperatures.

What is proof? Is it that which establishes the truth? And is truth anything more than conviction?: Does truth pertain to what the mind perceives, or to something independent of the mind? We can prove things in terms of themselves ... and all proofs may be said to be of this tautological kind for, naturally, all things are absolute and of the one absolute species. Apart from mathematical tautological proofs, most of our proofs are proofs of convincing-perception. Even judicial proofs are of sufficient evidence ... that is, of convincing-perception. If one makes accurate predictions, on the basis of certain assumptions, such accuracy does not constitute proof, but may give rise to convincing-perceptions of truth.

We need to constantly remind ourselves that all knowledge is of mental perception. We may or may not choose to be mentally convinced. As an absolute species and as absolute individuals, we determine our own truths.

To say that there is something outside of ourselves and independent of ourselves is to say that we are not absolute ... for an absolute has no exclusions. An absolute has no truths and no proofs other than those of its own conviction.

The creative intelligence ensures the continuation of the absolute species and the continuation of its own quality.

Analysis and dialectic work together to construct tidy and complete models and systems of understanding ... but, in so doing, they tend to prevent further creative perception in these areas of experience. Areas of unknown tend to be subconsciously subsumed within the known. Patterns of understanding tend to be creatively sterile ... and even anti-creative.

The unknown is a void, and creativity feeds upon it. A void is like a magnet to the creative mind, drawing it irresistibly.

The unknown is the opportunity for, and the milieu of, creativity. The unknown is the blank canvas, the inspiration, and the motivation of creativity.

Courage and creativity are closely allied. When a mind is drawn to void by the creative urge, it has the courage to confront the void. It does not see the void as a challenge to courage, but as an opportunity for creation. By a creative person, the unknown is approached as breakfast ham and eggs are approached ... eagerly, and not with fear and trepidation.

Personal characteristics are often blessings to us, but sometimes we do not recognise them as such. Being unaware of a blessing, one may unknowingly seek to rid oneself of it.

Via their nano creations (nanocomputers and nanoassemblers), memes are becoming evolutionarily independent of genes.

Nanotechnologies will reduce the numbers of income earners, that is the numbers of those who contribute to species' survival.

A species gives life-support only to those which contribute to species' survival.

Nanotechnologies will result in a reduction of world population, in the long-term.

The term 'cognition' refers to how we use and handle knowledge. Those who stress the role of cognition in perception underline the importance of knowledge-based processes in making sense of the 'neurally coded' signals from the eyes and other sensory organs.

Humanists reject that there are any absolute criteria of right and wrong. They believe in human choice, and the responsibilities which flow from choice.

Most humanists tend to be tolerant and intellectual atheists.

The atheist-humanist emphasises mind, rather than the soul, as the central and activating principle.

Comte's positivism is an expression of humanism, in which there is no deity, and the emphasis is entirely on man and on intellectual conceptions of the world and man's place in it.

Vico, the humanist, said that the only intentional force in the world is our own human mind.

The consciousness of the Absolute, which is in and of us, is our greatest achievement and our greatest possession.

Spiritually, there is but one unit of time ... and it is forever.

Those who read predictions expect them to address their concerns which, for the average New Zealander, include:

An algorithm is a predetermined procedure or ordered sequence of instructions for carrying out an operation in a finite number of steps. Computer programming involves designing such procedures since computing is precisely the automation and execution of algorithms.

It is noteworthy that, as of October 1997, over half of NZ corporate shares and over half of NZ government bonds are held by overseas owners.

The ongoing Earth core-explosion indicates a developing Venus-type scenario, with the ultimate extinction of all biomass on Earth. Before this occurs, we may colonise the universe with a diaspora of intelligent self-programming nanobios. This constitutes but one of an infinite range of possible future scenarios. If we perceive creative intelligence as being potentially all-powerful, it will be able to assume any forms or expressions it chooses ... and its range of choice is not confined to nanobios or to any other aspect of biomass. We return to a consideration of the nature of creative intelligence. We are, above all else, an intelligent species ... but our knowledge of creative intelligence is only at its beginnings.

It is for us to discover and develop our creative intelligence and, in so doing, to create our own future. This is the primary task of our species.

Some have assumed that the active will, and its ability to create and enliven images, is gene-dependent ... but is this assumption sound?

The advent of self-programming computers signals that creative intelligence can become independent of biomass. May it also become independent of inorganic mass?

Humans are essentially qualitative and transfinite beings. As we develop our personas, we develop as transfinite beings which are unaffected by physical death.

Creative intelligence is qualitative and transfinite. As our transfinite self continues after physical death, so our transfinite creative intelligence continues after physical death.

Intelligence accesses the Absolute via points of view and, being infinitely numerous and diverse, these are unable to provide the direct and unlimited access which faith provides.

The most direct and reliable access to the Absolute is by faith, feeling and intuition. The Absolute species feels and intuits its way and has absolute unquestioning faith it itself: Its truth is its way and its faith in its way. Our best course, as individuals, is to share in the faith, feeling and intuition of the Absolute.

Above all, faith is essential ... not faith in some thing but faith as our essential and natural quality or attribute ... that faith without which we could not exist ... absolute, substantive, stand-alone faith.

Faith, which is not faith in some thing, is faith itself. Faith governs: As it accepts, it prevails: Faith for faith is oneness with the Absolute.

Lack of faith differentiates. It is because people lack faith that they see themselves as separate from one another.

Faith is absolute, and it knows that each is wholly in each other and that life is truly one being.

Absolute faith is absolute empathy and absolute identity.

Being one with all is absolute faith and absolute certainty.

A person of absolute faith identifies absolutely with every thing which happens.

Adam and Eve's apple-tree is the tree of faithlessness.

Selfishness, greed, hate, fear and cruelty arise from faithlessness.

We can make of ourselves what we want ... for we are absolute beings: If we want to have faith, we will have faith.

Absolute faith is apperceptive: Wild animals do not have absolute faith.

Some ask 'what is transfinity?' and 'what is transfinite life?'. Absolute faith is transfinite, and its life is transfinite.

A person of absolute faith is in heaven now.

A person of absolute faith loses nothing at body-death.

Absolute faith is the pathway and gateway to heaven ... and it involves no waiting.

A person of absolute faith identifies with all, and not with one particular body.

Those, who give comfort to others, shall also be comforted.

Of incoming solar heat, about 30% is reflected back into space, and about 70% is retained to heat the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Of this 70%, the greater part eventually heats the atmosphere ... and, if this did not occur, the average temperature of the Earth's surface would fall by approximately 40 degrees C.

The specific heat of water is much greater than for most other common substances, and water must absorb five times as much heat energy to raise its temperature by the same amount as a comparable mass of dry soil. A great amount of energy is needed to evaporate even a small quantity of water. An increase of land-waters has a significant cooling effect.

The core explosion will continue to generate and release energy. Progressively, more of this energy will reach the surface via volcanism.

Increased volcanic emissions will cool the biosphere, and demand for energy will increase significantly.

As the biosphere cools, there will be a lag-period when demand for energy will exceed supply ... and, during this period, the price of energy will increase. Cheaper ways of accessing energy will then be developed, and the price of energy will then decrease.

In the 21st century, discoveries of science and technology will put a lot of power into the hands of individuals. Available power will increase and this will be largely at the disposal of individuals.

Inability to prove a proposition does not prove that the proposition is false. Lack of proof does not falsify.

In the philosophy of Leibniz, 'entelechy' is the active principle, present in all created substances, which makes them complete and self-sufficient ... and enabling change only as a result of internal action. According to vitalists, entelechy is a vital principle which directs processes in an organism towards self-realisation.

Live in faith: Live of and by faith. Have faith in the present; have faith in the past; have faith in the future ... and always have faith. Some have faith by instinct; some by intuition; some by belief; some by intellect ... but, no matter by what means, as long as we have faith.

It is very important to be able to forgive. While one may not always understand the actions of others, one may always forgive.

Einstein called into question not only the reliability of science but also the degree to which it depends on observation. He worked out his theories almost wholly by aprioristic reasoning about how the universe must be organised, given the assumption that its laws were as elegant as possible.

Einstein's above assumption is questionable ... for the perceived elegancy of the universe's laws may be only a series of simplistic models which our species has developed.

Gadamer said 'everything that is said and is there in the text stands under anticipations'. 'Only what stands under anticipation can be understood at all'. One can only understand what one might misunderstand. Since language discloses our world, without language, we would have no world. The object of knowledge and of statements is enclosed within the horizons of language. Everything that is, is language.

To say that 'everything that is, is language' is perhaps equivalent to saying that everything is of the nature of perceived models.

In Foucault's conception, truth is no longer an unchanging universal essence, but the perpetual object of appropriation and domination. Foucault was convinced that systems of knowledge do not progress in relation to a stable universal object ... but they characterise a situated knowledge (in time and place) that produces objects to satisfy its practical needs and sense of order.

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