11000 - 11199
Incoming and absorbed insolation are factored latitudinally as follows:
||Degrees of latitude
|Absorption (atmosphere and surface)
The largest fraction of the heat energy which the atmosphere receives, for maintaining its circulation, is derived from the condensation of water vapour originating primarily from oceanic evaporation.
Jet streams of wind occur mainly in the zone of prevailing westerlies above the lower troposphere and, in most cases, reach maximum intensity near the tropopause. Jet streams usually coincide with the regions of greatest storminess in the lower troposphere.
Cyclones form mainly in close proximity to jet streams, that is, in strongly baroclinic regions where there is a large increase of wind with altitude.
The synoptic method of weather forecasting involves the study of synchronous observations at a network of stations, at least 10 kms apart.
Speaking in generalised global terms, the last period of glaciation ended 10,000 years ago. It is noted, however, that it ended about 9,000 years ago in Fennoscandia and less than 8,000 years ago in north-central Canada.
The average depth of the world's seas and oceans is approximately 12,500 feet (3,800 metres). During periods of ice-age glaciation, world sea-levels drop by approximately 600-650 feet (180-200 metres) ... that is, by approximately 5%.
Researches indicate that 20,000 years ago (during the last ice-age), ice covered about 27% of the Earth's surface, compared with 10% at present. The indications are that non-ocean waters approximated 25.0 million cubic miles, compared with 8.6 million cubic miles at present. It appears that, compared with the present, ice-age ice increases threefold in volume (at peak) and non-ice land-waters also increase threefold in volume (at peak).
Career science depends not only on research but also on the ability to market ideas and to establish and maintain a scientific reputation.
The law of excluded middle (A or not-A) is true when precise symbols are employed but it is not true when symbols are vague, as in fact all symbols are.
Fuzzy logic' is multivalue logic.
Fuzzy logic' involves reasoning with 'fuzzy' sets.
Fuzziness recognises infinite shades of gray between black and white. It may mean that there is an infinite array of options, and it may mean analog instead of binary. It may mean all that a trial lawyer or judge leaves out when he says 'just answer yes or no'.
That which is real is uncertain: That which is certain is unreal.
Unlike the Aristotelian theory that recognises statements as 'true' or 'false', or 'l' or 'O' as in digital computerisation, fuzzy logic is capable of expressing linguistic terms such as 'maybe false' or 'sort of true'. In general, fuzzy logic, when applied to computers, allows them to emulate the human reasoning process, quantify imprecise information, make decisions based on vague and incomplete data ... yet, by applying a 'defuzzification' process, arrive at definite conclusions.
In the fuzziest case, a thing equals its opposite. (Note: This is also the case in absolute logic).
Fuzzy logic is prehensive logic, as dichotomous thinking is replaced by prehensive thinking.
The decision rule of prehensive thinking is ... 'I'll do it if it feels right'.
Artificially, words and concepts seek to cut the universe-integer into pieces.
Digital computerisation tends to digitise our thinking.
Computer programming is tending to program our thinking. Our minds create computer programs, but we then allow them to program our minds. It is as if we create a mind virus which then infects us.
There seems to be a human tendency to create models and programs and then to credit them with more powers and qualities than warranted by their design.
Many fuzzy-system researchers expect that fuzzy logic will enable the development of computer systems which adjust to people, rather than the reverse.
According to Duhem, no scientific law can be said to be true or false, because every accepted scientific law has equally acceptable alternatives.
Duhem observed that the symbols and concepts used in scientific laws are always too simple to represent completely the phenomena and their connections; hence the laws must always be provisional.
Mach said that scientific theory is not the discovery of real things, apart from our sensations, but a device for predicting their course. In effect, Mach is saying that scientific theory is prediction theory.
To Mach, mathematics and logic are seen as explaining the meaning of terms tautologically (true by internal consistency, rather than by factual verification) but telling us nothing about how things are in the world.
Important concepts of this propositional network include:
- The concept of the Absolute.
- The concept of the Species as the Absolute.
- The concept of the self-creating Species.
- The concept of genetically programmed perception.
- The concept of the exploding Earth.
- The concept of monadic sovereignty.
- The concept of species' metamorphosis.
The species expresses in time-space but it programs itself transfinitely.
Our species is self-created: Our species creates its own genes. By genetic engineering we consciously enter and participate in the species' self-creation process.
Genetic engineering accesses transfinite creation and transfinite awareness.
The gene-species is an absolute integer. That which affects the gene-species affects it absolutely.
Our genes are essentially transfinite. That which affects our gene-future affects our gene-past.
Genetic engineers can turn time back and forth, like pages of a book. Instead of being subject to time, we now find that time is subject to us.
All creatures are of the Lord and He dwells wholly within each of us ... and, in the degree that a person loves the creatures of the Lord, also in that degree the person loves the Lord ... and, in that degree, the person's transgressions shall be forgiven.
The wide spectrum of vibe-bands includes, inter alia,:
When one tunes-in to the thoughts of countless minds, one operates on the thinking band. When one senses and acts intuitively and when one senses the vibes of other persons and things, one is operating on the intuitive band. During hours of sleep, one may tune-in to the astral band ... where one voluntarily helps others, and one empathises with the helped, and helper and helped become one during the giving of the help. When one is receptive to the higher spiritual influences and personalities, one operates on the spiritual band. When one is overwhelmed by the primaeval id, one is operating on the id band. When one is under the influence of strong emotions, one operates on the emotive band.
- The thinking band.
- The intuitive band.
- The astral band.
- The spiritual band.
- The id band.
- The emotive band.
Modes linked to vibe bands include, inter alia,:
- Compulsive engram mode.
- Free memory recall mode.
- Automaton mode.
- Creative mode.
- Positive or negative modes.
Perspectivism is the philosophical position that all truth is truth from or within a particular perspective. The perspective may be a point of view set by such things as the nature of our sensory apparatus and genetic inheritance, or it may be thought to be bound by culture, history, language, education, class, experience, personality or gender. Since there are a great number of perspectives, there are also a great number of different families of truths.
Perspectivism may be seen as a philosophical technique for disolving the presumption that there can be objective knowledge.
Objectivity may be a disguise for power or authority in both academia and in the practice of science.
On the one hand, we have objectivity, realism and conservatism: On the other hand, we have perspectivism, idealism and liberalism.
Postmodernists and existentialists may see logical or rational thought as the attempted imposition of suspect dichotomies on the natural flux of events.
Postmodernism is usually seen as a reaction against a naive and earnest confidence in progress, and against confidence in objective or scientific truth.
Post-structuralism opposes the reduction of human phenomena to lawlike generalisations, and it celebrates the formless and subjective and spontaneous.
Post-structuralism denies fixed meanings and denies any correspondence between language and the world, or any fixed reality or truth or fact as object of enquiry.
Chomsky's view (that unless a child comes bundled with the right kind of software, it cannot catch on to the grammar or language as it in fact does) accords with the view that we are genetically programmed to perceive how and as we perceive.
Semiotics is the study of symbolic systems, and includes:
- (a) Syntax, or the abstract study of signs and their interrelations.
- (b) Semantics, or the study of the relations between signs and the objects to which they refer.
- (c) Pragmatics, or the relationship between users and the symbolic systems which they use.
Developmentally, it is helpful to explore and experience the various vibe-bands and modes ... and to learn to distinguish between them, and to learn how to 'tune-in' and 'tune-out'.
Since 1979, global temperatures have been measured by satellites: These measurements indicate that global temperatures have not increased over the past 18 years.
In 1995, the European meteorological institutes told the IPCG (the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change) that their records showed that, between 1951 and 1990, temperatures were within the range of natural variation.
Our absolute species creates itself and creates its future.
By virtue of the absoluteness of our species, each individual participates in the creation of the future.
Our journey to future is a journey of self-exploration and extension of our absolute being.
Only by empathising with our species may we know its future.
The Lord Absolute can understand itself by our agency, but more than reason is required in order to achieve this understanding. The spirit of the Lord can only be understood by the spirit.
To the extent that we live-out a belief, we imbue that belief with reality and truth.
I perceive the essence of reality not as density or as physicality but as those aspects of existence which have meaning and utility to individuals.
Coherentism is the view that a body of propositions may be known without a foundation in certainty, but by their interlocking strength.
This present propositional network has coherence and interlocking strength ... and it has practical value as an aid to prediction.
When I speak of methodology, I am reminded of Feyerabend's observation that 'anything goes in discovery' ... and, after all, I am into discovery ... into discovery of the future. When finalising my annual predictions I use insight, intuition and prehension, retaining this and discarding that. But, nevertheless, prior to this point of final selection I find methods useful. Thus my prediction processes proceed by method, insight, intuition and prehension ... and all this tempered by common sense.
Although some mathematical understanding of the Absolute may be gained, via the work of Cantor and others, understanding of the spirit of the Absolute cannot be acquired by rational and analytical means, but only by intuitive absorption within the process.
According to Brentano, it is the intentionality or directedness of mental states that marks off the mental from the physical.
There is always an available ploy, for means are infinite.
It is often unwise to rely entirely on reason, for one can rationalise virtually anything.
Foucault perceived all social relations, fundamentally, as relationships of power, and usually infused with sadism.
I have been asked what I mean by 'existence'. By that term, I mean 'all that is'.
Atoms communicate by passing electrons from one to another ... that is, by a flow of energy. May we not equate energy with communication? where there is energy, there is interchange and interchange is communication.
Every part of a perfect whole is perfect by virtue of the perfection of the whole.
We are, each of us, perfect by virtue of the perfection of the Absolute.
Obvious answers to problems are often seized upon and treated as undoubted truths.
Generally, people become obsessed with obvious evidence.
In the past, many scientists have drawn obvious but erroneous conclusions: Many still do so.
There are usually explanations other than the seemingly obvious explanation. The moral is to look carefully for other explanations.
In search of truth, it is often rewarding to examine the assumptions supporting popular wisdoms.
Most conclusions are arrived at on the basis of inconclusive evidence ... that is, on the basis of incomplete and/or biased information.
Popular wisdoms tend to depreciate and lose value over time: They need repairs, maintenance, alterations and from time to time a complete overhaul and, eventually, replacement with a new model.
Some popular wisdoms are well past their 'use by date' and are in urgent need of replacement.
In the same way that there is always a better method to be found, there is always a better explanation to be found.
The enlargement and intensification of the stratospheric deinsolation layer (due to increased volcanism) has consequences in three phases, as follows:
- First phase: A reduction of global mean temperature ... although there is some polar warming due to ozone depletion.
- Second phase: An oven effect, as the deinsolation layer itself warms up ... reducing the altitudinal heat-sink and causing a build-up of tropical and summer temperatures, high levels of ocean evaporation, greater N-S/S-N airflows, high rainfall and heavy flooding.
- Third phase: An increase of global albedo, causing general cooling, greater snowfalls, extended icing, and an acceleration of ice-age re-entry.
- The deinsolation layer is thus not only effective in a general reduction of insolation, but also in preventing the escape to altitude of surface-reflected sunrays. Within the trend to overall cooling, there is a trend to slightly more uniformity of temperatures latitudinally. Increased volcanism cools largely through enhancement of global albedo, and it does this via water redistribution from oceans to land. 20,000 years ago, ocean levels were 180-200 metres lower than present levels.
The bond albedo determines the energy balance of a planet and is defined as the fraction of the total incident solar energy that the planet reflects back into space.
The present bond albedo for Earth is 0.33 (C.F. Venus at 0.76).
As the Venus bond albedo is 0.76, over three-quarters of incoming solar heat is reflected back into space. This factor alone would indicate a low surface temperature ... but the surface temperature is actually a very high 850 degrees F. It is probable that a thermo-nuclear core explosion is the cause of Venus' high surface temperature.
When making an accurate prediction, the predictor empathises with that which is predicted. Accurate prediction is, by its very nature, empathic.
Good science is prediction science ... that is, science which enables us to make accurate predictions.
Propositions which contribute to the making of accurate predictions contain aspects of predictory truth.
One of Frege's logical insights was that a concept is analogous to a mathematical function.
Sellars saw thought as a kind of inner speech.
Our species equates existence: It is an absolute species. As each and all of an absolute's aspects are integral and integrated, to have insight into one aspect is to have insight into the whole. In my work, I seek insight into the mental aspect of the species, thereby gaining insight into the species as a whole.
Needs, will and faith are the determinants of values.
According to Cratylus, reality is utterly particular (one individual event, one moment of time, one individual thing after another) ... and any attempt to categorise reality would be like trying to cage the winds. The flux of nature cannot be captured in words, and nothing can be truly affirmed.
By reason of the oven or El Niño effect, causing increased evaporation of ocean-waters and increased rainfall, there is a transfer of ocean-waters to land-waters, and the level of global ocean-waters is falling by 2-3 centimetres per annum.
Faith feeds upon itself. It may begin with faith which is seemingly faith in something else but, essentially, faith is 'faith in faith' ... faith in itself ... standalone substantive faith. Faith is quiet will ... the will of silent utterance. The Absolute is a quiet presence of implicit faith.
We, the human species, are absolute ... and, if we decide to survive physically, we will survive physically.
Before Earth 'does a Venus', we may colonise on Mars or elsewhere.
In prediction science, we need to be constantly aware that we (the human race) create our future ... and that the future is only preordained if we create it so.
The loyalties of a chivalrous person are determined by that person's affections.
Chivalrous behaviour stems from honouring the God which is in every person.
Vaihinger said that what is untenable as an hypothesis can be useful and even necessary as a fiction.
According to Vaihinger, humans need to supplement reality by an idealised and often simplified world. Fictions help to cope with problems in science, metaphysics, theology, social ideals, and morality; they can work as if true, even though they are known to be false.
Veblen said that a free person must be able to exert a causality on things, or else his freedom is only an absurdity.
Fictional concepts which prove useful become accepted and believed as pragmatic fictions and then as reality.
Feyerabend said that it is advisable to let one's inclinations go against reason in any circumstances ... and science may benefit from it. This view is central to Feyerabend's epistemological anarchism.
In his 'Against method' (1974), Feyerabend maintained that the viewpoint of epistemological anarchism could not only motivate a proliferation of scientific theories but it could also effect a strongly pluralistic society and provide our perhaps 'only chance to achieve a humanity we are capable of, but have never fully realised'.
The further one proceeds with the collection of knowledge, the easier the process of collection becomes.
Energy is a means to life, communication and self realisation: It is a means to expression and creativity.
All energy is communication: Energy equates communication.
A chain of communication is a chain of energy sinks.
There is no light/energy without both an emitter and a receiver.
Only an energy sink can receive light. That which emits light cannot receive light during emission.
Singularity is an unexpressed, zero-energy condition.
That, which is unexpressed, acts as an energy-sink.
A black-hole is an energy-sink: It sucks energy into a condition of singularity: It transfinitises energy.
As Earth expands volumetrically, the large continents stand ever higher at their central parts furthest from the sea ... and these higher areas receive compensating isostatic under-accretions which add as much additional depth down into the mantle as their additional height above the mean surface level.
Major temperature differences and major ocean-level differences characterise the ups and downs of the quaternary ice-age cycles. The difference in global mean annual temperature between a glacial and an interglacial is approximately 14 degrees C ... and the difference in ocean-levels is 180-200 metres.
Extensive flooding and build-up of land waters occurs during ice-age re-entry ... and 'El Niño' climate occurs in this phase. Earth is now at ice-age re-entry.
During the last ice-age, huge lakes formed in Western USA, Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, Asiatic Russia, central Africa, and central Australia. From now on, we may expect to see signs of similar lake formation, accompanied by increased rainfall in the areas concerned.
At present, of the 55% of solar radiation reaching the ground, 5% is being reflected back into space, leaving 50% absorbed by the ground. At an ice-age nadir, of the 55% of solar radiation reaching the ground, 17% is reflected back into space, leaving 38% absorbed by the ground.
The following table shows temperature, albedo, solar ray absorption, and solar ray reflection estimates which we may expect on ice-age re-entry:
|Global Mean Temp. Deg C
||Earth Albedo Index
||% of solar rays reflected by ground into space
||% of solar rays absorbed by ground
The estimates of global albedo, for the present 14 deg. C mean temperature, and for an ice-age nadir 2 deg. C mean temperature, are as follows:
|Present 14 deg. C mean
|10% ice/snow x .7
|90% other x .3
|Nadir 2 deg. C mean
|30% ice/snow x .7
|70% other x .41
The phased effects of increased volcanism are as follows:
Note: When core-explosion heat reaches the Earth's surface, a Venus-type scenario will develop.
- Phase 1: Reduction of global mean temperature, due to partial occlusion of solar rays.
- Phase 2: The El Niño (oven effect), pumping ocean waters on to land.
- Phase 3: The albedo build-up and cooling, leading to ice-age re-entry.
A prediction may be seen as a plan of what the species proposes or intends to do in future.
A prediction may be seen as the most probable of a number of possible future outcomes.
Entrepreneurs seek laissez-faire environments for their business operations. They see economic and ecological controls as inhibiting the range and success of their business operations.
Ecological controls often reduce the economic well-being of peoples subject to such controls.
The ice-age and radiation vectors indicate that much human life will go underground within the next 100 years.
The core-explosion vector indicates the advent of a Venus-type scenario on Earth in about 200,000-300,000 years, and the end of organic life on Earth.
According to Duhem, a common-sense law (such as 'paper is inflammable') is correctly said to be either true or false ... but no scientific law can be said to be true or false because every accepted scientific law has equally acceptable alternatives. The symbols used in scientific laws are always too simple to represent completely the phenomena and their connections; hence, the laws must always be provisional.
Malraux said ... 'man is what he does'. Participation was the first and necessary stage in Malraux's search for definition. By examining what man does, one may begin to define man's powers.
Lopatin said that phenomena are the direct realisation, by the spirit, of its nature.
Le Roy maintained that scientific 'facts' and laws are arbitrary constructs designed to meet our needs and to facilitate effective action in pursuit of those needs.
Kireevsky said that 'believing thinking' was man's infallible guide to wholeness of the spirit. 'Believing thinking' strives to integrate all of man's spiritual and mental forces into a living whole.
To Khomyakov, the church was not an institution but a living organism of truth and love.
Khomyakov said that Hegel had the crucial fault of accepting the laws of understanding, instead of the law of the all-embracing spirit.
Khomyakov professed faith in the integrity of the spirit.
Existence is an integrated whole ... that is to say, existence is an integer. Existence, being without limitations and being all-inclusive, is an absolute integer.
Thoreau opined that all good things are wild and free.
Thoreau said that the experience of nature becomes as much a discipline for the moral will as a stimulant to creative imagination.
It was said of Pythagoras and his followers that their whole life was ordered to following God ... and that following God was the governing principle of their philosophy.
Rilke said that we must appropriate unto ourselves what is inflicted from without: By so doing, we will conquer life.
Rilke said that all social action is an attempt to escape from defective selfhood.
Poincar6 observed that, regardless of what our senses tell us, mathematically things equal to the same thing are equal to one another.
When we deal with mathematical abstractions, we tend to put our non-rational senses in abeyance: We tend to exclude them.
It was Poincare's view that, in a certain sense, theories are linguistic conventions.
There are always solutions to questions and problems, but solutions are not always rational solutions. Problems of life always provide their own resolutions: They resolve themselves.
A self-conscious personality, a soul, is an absolute being.
We are absolute beings and we cannot lose or escape our absoluteness.
C.D.Broad leaned to the view that moral properties are intuited by a special moral sense.
According to J Bronowski, some artists (such as William Blake) have the gift of being able to catch the universal themes that sound in the peculiarities of their time. Bronowski said that Blake's timeless importance lay in his ability to penetrate the true meaning of his time by the special gift of the imagination.
J. Bronowski emphasised that science and art must be looked at together.
L.E.J. Brouwer (the founder of the mathematical intuitionist school) contended that mathematicians work with mental constructions which are governed by self-evident primitive notions (primordial intuition).
A. Camus wrote 'life will be lived all the more fully because it has no meaning'.
L. Brunschvicg said that the limiting conditions of natural phenomena are conceived as restraints imposed by mind on its own freedom.
K. Burke said that the main ideal of criticism is to use all that there is to use. He said 'first genus, then differential'. 'The strategy in common is the genus. The range or scale or spectrum of particularisations is the differentiae'.
In psychology, the cognitive approach sets up, as an important object of study, the behaviour of organisms as they react to stimuli. An important concept of cognitive psychology is 'mediation'. A stimulus impinges upon the organism, which then processes it in some way and responds. J.S. Bruner, a pioneer of cognitive psychology, tried to develop a psychology which was responsive to real life and real life problems.
Each one of us does what he or she has to do and is most fitted to do, in accordance with the will of the species.
As demand (human wants and needs) cannot be controlled, supply cannot be controlled. Attempts to curb supply to some demands will be, at best, only partially successful. Demand will always win out over controls.
To be devotedly human and to celebrate the human condition is a treasure beyond price: It is our greatest and our saddest joy.
Van Gogh said 'the best way to know God is to love many things'.
Van Gogh said 'I shall be poor; I shall be a painter; I want to remain human'.
As God is wholly in each one of us, to love each and every being is to love Him ... and this is the essence of the first commandment. One, who is truly and compassionately human, is very close to heaven.
When you are consciously and fully aware that every thought and action is of and by God, then you are in heaven.
Nano machines, with built-in computers, will be able to:
- Construct any conceivable thing (organic or inorganic) from any kind of material input.
- Replace human workers in virtually all occupations.
- Build space-ships (and space propulsion systems) which are capable of transporting nano-lifeforms throughout the universe.
The transition, from a worker-earner society to a non-worker nano society will be characterised by increasing unemployment and a widening of the rich-poor gap. Nano technology will be an extension and intensification of automation and computerisation.
Life is geared to scarcity and to the economics of scarcity ... and this scarcity derives not only from the requirements of expanding populations but also from the insatiable wants, greeds and fears of humankind. Nano technology will provide the potential for a plenteous work-free society, but human nature will prevent the realisation of that potential.
Governments will seek to employ the best nano-scientists and nano-research facilities for military and geopolitical ends.
Powerful corporations will seek to monopolise nanotechnologies and to patent them and to maximise the profits of commercial applications.
Nano production technology will enable on-the-spot production (of virtually anything) and the global needs of transportation will be greatly reduced.
It is a key point that nano-machines will operate close to the localities of demand-need.
Nano production will be carried out in urban locations and demand for farm production will be greatly reduced.
Using very cheap inorganic inputs, nano production processes will not require farm produce inputs.
Nano production will result in large reductions of the value of rural land.
As governments and large corporations monopolise nano potentials, the major part of the world's population will be deprived of most of the benefits which could be available. Those who control nano production will require selling prices beyond the purchasing power of most people.
The nano vector is a function of creative intelligence ... and creative intelligence is generally independent of the needs of the bulk of humanity.
Nanotechnology will result in a shifting of conscious awareness and mental abilities from humans to nano lifeforms. Long-term, life will metamorphose nanologically.
The nano vector indicates that human life may be seeded, from Earth, to other parts of the universe.
Protein engineering is the first major step towards a biomolecular engineering capability, which can structure anything, atom by atom.
Proteins are complex nitrogenous compounds which occur in all living cells. They include milk casein, egg albumen, haemoglobin, keratin from wool or hair, muscle proteins from meat, the hormones insulin and thyroglobulin, enzymes such as pepsin, trypsin and many others. In plants, protein is mainly concentrated in the seeds, as in the cereal grain6 and beans.
As early as 1820 it was recognised that the proteins could be broken down or hydrolised into a number of 'building block' units. These were called amino acids. In this process, a high molecular weight molecule is converted into a number of small molecular weight amino acids.
A polypeptide is a linear condensation of amino acids which, alone or associated with others, forms a protein molecule.
The protein molecule contains both basic (amino) and acidic (carboxyl) groups and is therefore an amphoteric substance which can combine with either acids or bases.
Biochemists are already working with nanomachines, made chiefly of protein. Protein is the main engineering material of living cells.
In modern gene-synthesis, genetic engineers build specific DNA molecules by combining molecules in a particular order. By using gene machines to write, and restriction enzymes to cut and paste, genetic engineers can write and edit whatever DNA messages they choose.
Genetic engineers have now programmed bacteria to make proteins ranging from human growth hormone to rennin, an enzyme used in the making of cheese.
An enzyme changes its target's structure, then moves on: A hormone affects its target's behaviour only so long as both remain stuck together. Other proteins serve basic mechanical functions: Some push and pull, some act as cords or struts, and parts of some molecules make excellent bearings.
Ribosomes are proof that nanomachines, built of protein and RNA, can be programmed to build complex molecules.
A number of large corporations are researching the development of bio-chips for bio-computers. They are seeking to emulate the processes and achievements of the human brain.
Molecular engineering capabilities are moving quickly to the stage of 'atom by atom' construction.
In their natural behaviour, enzymes show the way for molecular engineering: They assemble large molecules (of DNA, RNA, proteins, fats, hormones and chlorophyll) from the small molecules around them.
Advances in the technologies of medicine, space, computation, production and warfare depend on our ability to develop molecular assemblers (nanomachines which can construct any molecular matter from basic atom 'building-blocks').
Different RNA molecules replicate at different rates, depending on their lengths and subunit patterns.
Biochemists can now make RNA and protein from off-the-shelf chemicals, without help from life.
Unlike test-tube RNA, viral RNA must also direct bacterial ribosomes to build protein devices that enable it to escape old bacteria and then survive and to enter new bacteria. This capability requires viral RNA molecules to be about 4,500 subunits long.
In the evolutionary process, order emerges through the variation and selection of molecular replicators.
Genes, memes, bacteria and viri can all replicate and evolve.
All primates lack enzymes for making vitamin C, an omission shared by only the guinea pig and the fruit bat.
All known life shares a common ancestor.
The tools of the future exist now only as ideas ... that is, as strange attractors.
Evolutionarily, genes build ever more elaborate replicative mechanisms to aid their survival.
Ideas mutate, replicate and compete: Ideas evolve.
Ideas compete for scarce resources, namely human attention and human action.