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10800 - 10999
L.Alvarez discovered the phenomenon of orbital electron capture, whereby an atomic nucleus captures an orbiting electron, resulting in a nuclide with a lower proton number. In 1939, with Bloch, he made the first measurement of the magnetic moment of a neutron.
In 1946, working independently, Bloch and Purcell developed the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. Many types of atomic nucleus possess a magnetic moment, and quantum mechanics indicated that the moment could only adopt one of a number of possible orientations with respect to an applied magnetic field. Each orientation requires a different energy and so transitions from one state to another can be accomplished if a photon of electromagnetic radiation (of radio frequency) is absorbed. The magnetic moments of the proton and neutron were measured by this method and since then many complex molecules have also been studied.
Any atomic nucleus with spin will, when held in a powerful magnetic field, absorb radiation in the radiofrequency range by a resonance effect ... and measurement of this gives valuable data on the absorbing nuclei and their molecular environment.
By way of reminder, an ion is an electrically charged particle, formed by loss or gain (by an atom) of electrons. A cation is a positively charged ion, and an anion is a negatively charged ion. K.Fajans (1887-1975) devised rules for chemical bonding. The first rule is that, as highly charged ions are difficult or impossible to form, so covalent bonds are more likely to result as the number of electrons to be removed or donated increase5. The second rule is that some ionic bonding is favoured by large cations and small anions.
In 1948, M.Goeppert Mayer discovered the pattern of 'magic numbers' ... that is, atomic nuclei with 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, or 126 neutrons or protons, as being particularly stable. (The seven include helium, oxygen, calcium and tin). By 1950, aided by a clue from Fermi, Mayer worked out a complete shell model for atomic nuclei, in which spin orbit coupling predicted precisely the 'magic number' stable nuclei actually observed. In this model, the magic numbers describe nuclei in which certain key nucleon shells are complete.
During the late 1940's, Feynman showed that the interaction between electrons (or between positrons) could be considered by regarding them as exchanging virtual photons (electromagnetic radiation).
S.Tomonaga (1906-1979) originated the idea that two subatomic particles may interact by exchanging a third virtual particle between them. This concept led to quantum electrodynamic theory (QED) being developed by Tomonaga, Feynman, and Schwinger.
In 1953, M.Gell-Mann made a major contribution to nuclear theory by introducing the concept of 'strangeness', a new quantum number which must be conserved in any so-called 'strong' nuclear interaction event. Using strangeness, Gell-Mann and Neleman (independently) classified elementary particles into multiplets of 1, 8, 10 or 27 members. The members of the multiplets are then related by symmetry operations ... specifically unitary symmetry of dimensions 3 or SU(3). The omega-minus particle was predicted by this theory and was observed in 1964.
M.Gell-Mann and G.Zweig introduced (in 1964) the concept of quarks, each having one-third or two-thirds integral charge and baryon number. From these, the other nuclear particles (hadrons) can be made. 'Quark' is an invented word, from Joyce's Finnegan's Wake ... 'Three quarks for Muster Mark'. Six types of quark are now recognised. Five were detected in the 1960's, and the sixth quark wasn't detected until 1995.
J.Steinberger has posited that all matter is made of quarks ... and the proton and neutron are made of three quarks of different kinds, and leptons are said to be of six kinds of quarks. Leptons are light particles ... that is, electrons, muons, tau and their neutrino partners. Neutrinos interact only through the weak nuclear force. Muons and tau particles are short lived. On decay, a muon gives an electron and two neutrinos.
M.B.Green's superstring theory, concerning the nature of nuclear particles, treats the interaction of sub-nuclear particles not in terms of points but in terms of onedimensional curves, or superstrings, having mass and a length only 10 to the -20 power of proton diameter, in 10-dimensional space-time (nine in space, plus time). The theory, developed in the 1980's, deals with all four field forces and involves sophisticated mathematics.
A milestone in nucleonics was the unification of the theories of electromagnetic and weak interactions in the early 1970's, principally by Weinberg, Salam and Glashow. A consequence of their work was the prediction of new, very heavy particles called the W and Z bosons. These were discovered during a 1983 Cern experiment which involved colliding beams of protons and anti-protons.
A standard model of particle physics, in 1996, was expressed as six quarks, six leptons (which are constituents of all matter) and a small number of gauge bosons (which are responsible for fundamental forces).
S.Hawking established that the event horizon of a black hole can only increase or remain constant with time, so that if two black holes merge, the new surface area is greater than the sum of that of the components. He showed that black holes result not only from the collapse of stars but also from the collapse of other space-matter.
In the 18901s, the explorer Nansen noted that the path of drifting sea-ice did not follow the prevailing wind direction, but deviated about 45 degrees to the right. In 1905, V.W.Ekman was able to explain this as an effect of the coriolis force, caused by the rotation of the Earth. Ekman went on to describe the general motion of nearsurface waters as the result of the interaction between surface wind force, the coriolis force, and frictional effects between different water layers.
A.E.Douglass (1867-1962) devised a tree-ring dating technique (dendrochronology). He succeeded in constructing a continuous dendrochronological time scale for timber, back to the first century. Later workers in this field, using the Californian bristle-cone pine, extended this to about 500OBC.
C-G.Rossby (1898-1957) showed that the strength of the westerly winds has an important influence on global weather, either allowing the normal sequence of cyclones and anticyclones to develop when the westerlies are strong or allowing cold polar air to sweep to lower latitudes when they are weak.
During the 19401s, W.M.Elsasser developed the dynamo model of the Earth's magnetic field, which attributes the field to the action of electric currents flowing in the Earth's flu-id metallic outer core. (Note: There is, however, reason to think that the Earth's core is composed of super-hot plasma).
Following Urey's suggestion that the isotope ratio of sea-water oxygen (18-neutron-0/16-neutron-0) depends upon the prevailing temperature (due to isotropic fractionation), Emiliani pioneered a technique for determining the past temperature of the oceans. In the 19501s, Emiliani achieved this by measuring the 18-neutron-0/16-neutron-0 ratio in the carbonate remains of microorganisms in ocean sediments. By selecting for study only pelagic species (i.e. Those that live near the ocean surface), he was able to establish that there had been seven glacial cycles during the past 2.25 million years.
In the late 1950's, W.M.Ewing's studies of the ocean sediment showed that its thickness increases with distance from the mid-ocean ridge, which added support for the sea-floor spreading hypothesis proposed by H.H.Hess.
In 1963, J.T.Wilson provided support for the sea-floor spreading hypothesi5 of H.H.Hess by pointing out that the age of islands on either side of the main Pacific Ocean construction ridge increases as to their distance from the ridge. He 5uggested that there exist hot spots in the mantle where plumes of magma rise, due to convection flows within the mantle ... and that, as tectonic plates pass over them, volcanic islands are formed.
Instruments on Explorer satellites recorded high levels of radiation several kilometres above the Earth. There are two toroidal belts, created by charged solar electrons and protons being trapped by the Earth's magnetic field. These belts of radiation constitute the Earth's magnetosphere: They are called the Van Allen belts, after their discoverer.
Polar-orbiting satellites were used during the 1960's for research on both the Earth's atmosphere and the near-Earth space environment. Cloud formations were observed from the Tiros series of satellites, leading to improved weather forecasting. The Transit navigational satellite and Echo telecommunications satellite programmes started in 1960. Remote sensing of the Earth's surface, for resource studies, was successfully begun in July 1972 with Landset 1.
From Earth-orbiting satellites in eccentric orbits, N.F. Ness discovered and investigated the magnetopause, the boundary between the Earth's magnetic field and space proper. On the solar side of the Earth, the magnetopause lies at about 10 Earth-radii: Away from the Sun, the magnetopause extends to 60 Earth-radii and beyond. The shape of the magnetosheath is due to the velocity and impact of solar-wind particles.
In July 1963, a Syncom 2 telecommunications satellite was put into geostationary orbit, at 36,000 kms above the equator. With three or more such satellites, point-to-point communications are possible anywhere in the world, except for polar regions. Meteorological observations are able to be made over most of the globe.
The European SPOT (satellite pour l'observation de la terre) satellites provide excellent spatial resolution and colour discrimination for geological and cartographic remote sensing studies of the planet. Downward-looking instruments can investigate such phenomena as the ozone hole ... and telescopes can view outwards to explore space across the electromagnetic spectrum at wavelengths where the atmosphere absorbs radiation. New insights into the universe and its origin are obtained.
Recent research concerning cosmic rays indicates that they consist mainly of protons and a small proportion of heavy positive nuclei, together with electrons ... all these particles being of high energy and coming from the Sun, probably with a contribution from supernovae.
Charles Coulomb (1736-1806) discovered the inverse square law of electric and magnetic attraction. He discovered that the force between two charged poles is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them and directly proportional to the product of their magnitude (Coulomb's Law of Force).
In 1827, A.M.Ampere provided a mathematical formulation of electromagnetism, which relates the magnetic force between two wires to the product of the currents flowing in them and the inverse square of the distance between them.
In 1939, E.H.Armstrong devised FM radio transmission. The method used by Armstrong was to vary the carrier signal by changes in frequency (frequency modulation or FM) which is largely free from interference. The method calls for use of high frequencies.
By way of prenote, a diode is a component which conducts electricity in one direction only. In the late 1950's, L. Esaki used narrow junctions or tunnels in diodes to gain fast speeds of operation, small size, and low power consumption. Esaki diodes now have widespread electronic applications in computers and microwave devices.
N.Basov and A.M.Prokhorov invented the maser in 1955, and the laser in 1958. The basic idea was to amplify electromagnetic radiation by using the relaxation of excited atoms or molecules to release further radiation. In 1955, the colleagues produced molecular beams of excited molecules that would amplify electromagnetic radiation, when stimulated by incident radiation. Such a device is known as a maser (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation).
In 1958, Basov and Prokhorov found a way of using a second radiation source to 'pump' the gas into an excited state (the three-level method). Basov then invented the laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). He afterwards worked on the theory of laser production in semiconductors, on pulsed lasers, and on the interaction of light with matter.
Superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Kamerlingh-Onnes. A metal, brought into this state by temperature below 15 K, expels magnetic field and shows zero resistance to a flow of electricity. In 1950, it was shown that the critical temperature (for the onset of superconductivity) is inversely proportional to the atomic mass of the metal.
In 1957, Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer developed the first satisfactory theory of superconductivity, now called the BCS theory. Bardeen posited that the oscillations of the metal lattice must be interacting with the metal conduction electrons. Cooper showed that electrons can weakly attract one another by distorting the metal lattice around them, forming a bound pair of electrons at low temperature, when thermal vibrations are much reduced. Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer then concluded that a cooperative state of many pairs formed, and that these pairs carried the superconducting current. The members of a pair have a common momentum and the scattering of one electron by a lattice atom does not change the total momentum of the pair, so that the flow of electrons continues indefinitely.
W.Prout suggested, in 1815, that ... (I) The relative atomic masses of all elements are exact multiples of that of hydrogen, and (II) That hydrogen is a primary sub-stance or 'first matter'. Prout saw the hydrogen proton as the basic element.
E.Mach (1838-1916) originated Mach's principle that a body has no inertial mass in a universe in which no other mass or bodies are present, as inertia depends on the relationship of one body to another.
In 1930, R.J.Trumpler found that more distant star clusters appeared to be larger than nearer ones. He attributed this to the interstellar absorption of light by dust grains. It has since been shown that starlight is polarised by interstellar dust.
In 1931, Kurt Godel wrote a paper 'On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems' and showed that arithmetic was incomplete. In any consistent formal system able to describe simple arithmetic there are propositions that can neither be proved nor disproved on the basis of the system. Godel also showed that the consistency of a mathematical system such as arithmetic cannot necessarily be proved within that system. Thus a larger system may have to be used to prove consistency, and its consistency assumed: All rather unsatisfactory! The programme for developing mathematical logic, suggested by Hilbert, Frege and Russell, was therefore untenable and it is now clear that there is no set of logical statements from which all mathematics can logically be derived. Godel's paper of 1931 may well be the most significant event in 20th-c mathematics and logic. We may now be assured that mathematics cannot be totally complete and totally consistent. In his 1930 PhD thesis, Godel proved that first-order logic is complete ... so that in first-order logic every statement is provable or disprovable within the system. Godel was unconvinced by the position and the arguments of the positivist school of philosophy.
Sir James Black's work on beta-blockers was based on the theory that heart-muscle has specific beta-receptors that respond to hormonal control. Black reasoned that, if these sites could be blocked, the effect of the hormones on the heart would be inhibited and its workload reduced ... and he was able to find a very satisfactory antagonist, propranolol, in 1964. Since then, such beta-blockers have been much used to control heart disease and hypertension.
Creation is absolute and transfinite in its nature and its processes, including the processes of evolution. The appearances of created things are temporal and spatial, but time and space in no way limit the creative processes themselves.
If there are other living species, each other species will be the creator of its own universe. Why? ... because each created thing is absolute and of the absolute, and the absolute is wholly in each created thing.
Time and space have no part in communications between transfinite beings. Humans are transfinite beings. The implication is that, although some human communications are apparently finite, most take place at the transfinite level ... that is, at the level of intuition and at the psychological level of feelings and emotions.
We are absolute beings, of transfinite individuality, and we slough off our finite skins at physical death. All our thoughts (including percepts and concepts) are transfinite: Our mental being is transfinite and all our qualities are transfinite. We are transfinite now and we always have been transfinite ... and we need only to realise what we are.
On the one hand ... We have the paradigm of finite human life which ceases at physical death and on the other hand ... We have the paradigm of humans as absolute transfinite beings which simply slough off their finite skins at physical death. There is no bridge or compromise between these two paradigms: The acceptance of one involves rejection of the other.
The principle that every judgement justifies itself by expanding into an inference, is part of a wider principle ... namely, that all parts of our knowledge are connected together. We know that any statement may have a modifying effect upon any other portion of our knowledge ... and every judgement is at bottom connected with every other one.
William Blake pointed out that imagination destroys the antithesis of subject and object. When we let the imagination play on an object, we may so alter it in the mind that the initial objective concept becomes greatly changed and perhaps almost unrecognisably so. Subjective and objective images may merge and then the antithesis or dichotomy disappears. Of course, we need also to bear in mind that no two people perceive of any given object in exactly the same way. It is even debatable whether there are any objects independent of perception.
How do sympathy and understanding graduate to becoming empathy except by imagination? And how can there be quantum leaps of insight without the catalysis of imagination? And there could be no art or inspiration without imagination. William Blake equated imagination with human existence itself. He saw imagination as the essential human nature. He was a romantic in the classic mould.
The outstanding qualities of the romantic are imagination, vision, creativity, charisma, energy, mastery, daring, boldness, capacity for experience, courage, and intellect. The romantic naturally wants to go boldly where no one has gone before.
In mergence of subject and object, imagination invalidates logical reasoning, as far as the imaginative mind is concerned. Although logic may melt away, intuition may well stay. Creative intuition and creative imagination are very close relations.
Imagination is essential to prediction. A predictor must be able to imagine and envision various future scenarios and to assign coefficients of probability to them (after considering current events and the propositional network). Good clear envisioning of possible future scenarios is vital in the process, and this calls for an active imagination.
Most of what we know is in terms of visual imagery: Our knowledge is in terms of sight and seeing: We are seers ... and, when we predict the future, we see it: Predictors are seers of the future.
Leadership involves the gaining of consensus of common perceptions, common attitudes, common commitment, and common action. The easiest of these to achieve is common attitudes, followed by common commitment and common action: Common perceptions are thereby generated or assumed.
As the mind analyses, it identifies self with the parts which result from analysis ... and, thus, analysis is diremptive, in that it tends to separate our awareness from the absolute oneness of existence.
Laissez-faire conditions result in a re-distribution of communal wealth (energy) away from the less capable, intelligent, shrewd and selfish to the more capable, intelligent, shrewd and selfish.
In order to achieve social justice for its people as a whole, a democratic society cannot adopt completely unregulated laissez-faire policies ... and it finds it necessary to temper laissez-faire with social legislation to assist the less capable, less intelligent, less shrewd and less selfish.
The species' environment is what the species has manufactured genetically. Individuals perceive what their species manufactures genetically. Perception (as to function and as to what is perceived) is of genetic provenance.
Kant placed praxis above theory but it was Marx who exalted praxis to revolutionary supremacy. Marx said, in effect, 'to blazes with what can or can't be done in theory, and to blazes with what has happened in the past ... this is what we are going to do!' Whatever else may be said about Marxist communism, it is bold and iconoclastic.
Marxist communism is economically inefficient. State ownership, of assets and businesses, involves tremendous inertia and inelasticity. Centralised planning and control deadens initiative and enterprise ... and is creatively counter productive.
Listen and obey. Obey your own inner conscience, and not someone else's conscience. There are many who will tell you what you should do: Ignore them, and obey your own inner conscience. What is wrong for you may be right for someone else ... and what is right for you may be wrong for someone else.
Truth is absolute and is concerned with all finite, transfinite and infinite aspects of absolute existence. Science is concerned with the whole truth and, to the extent that scientists deal only with finite facts, they neglect the non-finite aspects of existence and deny themselves full access to the truth.
The law of gestalt economy is that once a thought-process is presented in a given way, it tends to persist in the direction set by the properties of the structure, rather than by external factors.
Our species gestalts the qualities of everything we sense and conceive: Light, colour, texture, happiness, humour, justice, love, ideas, beliefs, mores, customs, space, time, and all else, is gestalted by our species. Our gestaltic abilities are genetically developed and passed on from generation to generation.
The gestaltic processes of perception indicate that the living species creates its environment; the survivalist processes of genetics indicate that the living species creates according to its own nature and needs; and the absolute nature of existence indicates that the living species is integrally one with its environment. The living species is self-creating and it is all there is.
It may appear that our mental species is parasitical upon our physical species, and that our spiritual species is parasitical upon our mental species ... but we may also perceive that our species is but one species which is metamorphosing from physical to mental to spiritual mode.
Lack of understanding, of the essential nature of things, may be traced to lack of understanding of the processes and genetics of perception. As we gain in our understanding of perception, we may find that there are no things or events whatsoever which are separate from and independent of perception ... that is, of individual and species perception.
The living species comprehends all, and is absolute: Without the living species there could be no thing whatsoever. Without species' perception, there could be no thing whatsoever; without the ability to perceive, there could be no thing whatsoever; that which is not perceived does not exist.
As we are not consciously aware of the absolute creative power of species-perception, we are consciously unaware of the individual contribution which we make to creation. Consequently, we tend to think that we are pawns in the overall scheme of things ... and we could not be more mistaken: As a species, we create ourselves and our environment ... and there is nothing other than us, the species.
We tend to be judgemental and to say that this person is good and that person is bad ... and to say that a bad person is not of God. But existence is absolute, and God is absolute existence ... and God is wholly in each and every one of us.
Atmospheric pressure decreases rapidly and roughly exponentially with height. At several earth radii from the surface, the density of the atmosphere approximates the density of interplanetary space.
The two most widely accepted theories, concerning the origin of atmospheric oxygen, are:(1) That the oxygen has been produced by the continuing and cumulative effect of photosynthesis, during which carbon is separated from the oxygen in carbon dioxide. (2) That the oxygen has been produced by the decomposition of water vapour by UV rays in the upper atmosphere.
INDEX to the Network Propositions
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