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Network Propositions
10600 - 10799

Gravity is the attraction and conversion force, by which energy/mass is returned to singularity.

Gravity transfinitises mass, from finite state to transfinite state, and thence to singularity.

Energy is transfinite: It is intermediate between finite mass and infinite singularity.

When incoming mass hits a black-hole's event horizon, the mass explodes and expands. Expansion precedes singularisation.

That the mass of the universe is expanding may indicate that it is in the process of singularisation.

The big-bang advent of our universe may have been the violent explosion of mass hitting a black-hole's event horizon.

Our materiality is in process of transmutation to spirituality ... that is, to singularity.

Spirituality is the conscious realisation of singularity.

Singularity is the mainset of all expression and non-expression.

A super-dense dwarf star self-generates its singularity event horizon and explodes.

The state of singularity is common to all mass: It is omnipresent: There is but one singularity.

Better methods usually involve the displacement of unskilled and low-skilled workers. The forces of competition are creating more unemployment among the unskilled and low-skilled work groups generally. Some employment alternatives may be found for these groups, but the overall effect is an increase of unemployment and a widening of the rich-poor gap.

The UK government is now calling a halt to expenditure on new road underpasses, overpasses etc. Research has shown that future capital expenditure of this nature would not result in a reduction of traffic congestion, and that it would simply result in increasing the volume of traffic, with no net improvement to the problem of traffic congestion. Traffic managers and planners are now required to find alternative solutions ... involving the application of greater creative intelligence in lieu of greater capital expenditure.

God, the Absolute, tenses and stretches and opposes Himself: This is the provenance of good and evil: Both necessary to Him, but the rewards of good are greater than the rewards of evil.

The concept 'good', has no definition because it is simple and has no parts. Problems arise when we start to analyse the concept ... but, intuitively, we know what is 'good'.

Many of the belief5 of common sense are such that, although, like the laws of logic, they are neither provable nor disprovable, there are far better reasons for accepting them than for accepting any of the philosophical doctrines which run counter to them.

Objects are essentially sense-data and often, when we analyse and compute sense-data, we make nonsense of it.

We are naturally reactive and, survivally, first impressions are usually the best impressions.

Computeri5ation is well and good in its place ... but it should always be borne in mind that number statements are about concepts, and concepts have fundamental incompleteness. As concepts are always essentially provisional, the outcomes of computerisation are always essentially provisional. The products of computerisation are models of reality ... and they should never be regarded as reality itself.

The essential skill and task of creative intelligence is to create with the least expenditure of energy.

When our population numbers approach non-sustainable criticality, the emphasis of creative intelligence will be directed increasingly to reducing our expenditure of energy. The emphasis will move to low-energy consuming modes of living.

Increasingly, creative-intelligent living will involve less expenditure of energy ... not because energy is unavailable but because creative intelligence uses less and needs less energy.

Most physical activities are heavy energy users ... but mental activities are low energy users.

Predictions are best made and understood in terms which are known and acceptable to the predictor's public.

The power of predictions arises from the effect of the predictor's utterances upon the psyche of his audience. Prediction is primarily a leadership function.

Zero motion equates zero energy.

The lowering of temperature decreases motion.

The raising of temperature increases motion.

Differentiation imparts motion and energy.

Uniformity and homogeneity lack motion and energy: They tend to induce boredom, disinterest and inaction.

That, which differentiates, energises.

Differentiation is accompanied by motion, interest and action.

Analysis imparts motion and energy.

The activities of science impart motion and energy.

Fractal down-scaling differentiates, and increases space and energy.

That, which increases energy, increases space.

Differentiation increases energy and space.

Analysis increases energy and space.

The activites of science increase energy and space.

Zero motion equates zero energy and equates zero space.

To increase speed is to increase space, time and differentiation.

When one moves faster, one experiences a more extended and more differentiated universe.

All which is infinite is one singularity.

When we know how to predict the future with 100% accuracy, as to all macro and micro events, we will know how to create and control the future.

Our ability to predict the future is commensurate with our ability to create and control the future.

In respect of nucleonics, we use our creative imagination to describe and account for such phenomena, but the only available proofs are experimental and experiential. We can only judge nuclear theories according to how well they work in practice.

Resistivity is the analogue of viscosity; potential is the analogue of stress; capacity is the analogue of strength; and amperage is the analogue of the rate of deformation.

Explication is analogous. Descriptions, of things and events, are in terms of analogous imagery. Explication is non-substantive.

All changes of explanation change the phenomena explained.

How we perceive phenomena, influences the reality of phenomena.

A workable scientific theory operates as a key-code to bring about required outcomes.

An outcome is a pattern of events, and a theory-keycode operates as its attractor.

Our reality is a function of our perception.

Science and technology develop conceptual models, and successful procedures. They aim to produce workable viewpoints and a body of useful, practical knowledge.

Scientific and technical knowledge is a collection of useful working hypotheses.

All scientific knowledge is hypothetical and provisional: It constitutes our best appreciations of reality, as we perceive it.

We need to be aware of the limitations, of assumptions of finity and formal logic, which are implicit in many scientific hypotheses.

Most scientists have not taken 'on board' the work of Cantor, Bell and others concerning the transfinite aspects of existence.

Many scientists make the assumption, usually implicitly, 'that which is not finite is not real'. This is a fallacious assumption: It is fallacious to assume that reality is confined to things finite. This is the fallacy of limited reality.

When we give primacy to our intelligence, we relegate our intuitive and spiritual awareness. When we put ourselves into intelligence mode, we inhibit and occlude the intuitive-spiritual mode: When we switch on the one, we switch off the other.

We all act survivally. Physical people act to preserve their bodies; intelligent people act to preserve their minds; spiritual people act to preserve their souls.

There is a strong case for arguing that our species is absolute ... and there is a strong case for arguing that our species has both the will to survive and the means/ power to survive.

If the physical survival of our species is under threat, and if it is the top priority of our species to survive, and given that our species is absolute ... then it appears that it is the will of our species to survive non-physically.

Given that our species is absolute, it may survive physically in another universe or in transfinite forms or in unexpressed singularity.

If our species wills to express in transfinite forms, such may include high-vibe intuitive and spiritual forms.

The evidential reading, of this network as a whole, is that our species is transmuting to intuitive and spiritual forms ... and that this process of transmutation has been proceeding for a long time ... and that large numbers of individuals are now living intuitive and spiritual lives, independently of physical bodies.

Of those living intuitive and spiritual lives, many occupy physical bodies but they live in intuitive and spiritual mode.

Post-discovery knowledge not only makes discovery easier, it makes it possible. The transfinite aspects of discovery make it possible, and it would not take place otherwise.

The qualitative aspect of existence is non-physical and non-finite ... it is transfinite.

Knowledge and discovery are transfinite qualities.

The timing of discoveries is always optimal, from the species' viewpoint.

Sharing the one absolute mainset, all things are absolutely qualitative ... that is, they are of the quality of the Absolute.

As humans are qualitative and qualitatively aware, they are transfinitely aware.

That which is more qualitative is more transfinite in awareness and expression.

Faith is a wonderfully pure and simple quality: It is the faith of the Absolute ... supreme, unopposed and unafraid. Faith is our natural condition, as absolute beings.

Those, who realise that they are absolute beings, have the faith of the Absolute.

Absolute faith resides in the absolute being of our lives: It is undying and it is-the evidential signature of eternal life.

What one has faith in, is not as important as faith itself. Objects of faith may be helpful in the development of faith, but true faith needs no objects. True faith is as natural as life itself.

Genetically engineered oilseed rape plants have been developed which grow plastic polymers in their leaves and seeds. This plastic, which is biodegradable, may possibly be used industrially for plastic product manufacture in the future. Farmers may be growing plastic plant crops within ten years. (Note: This is taken from a news item in the London Sunday Times, of March 1997).

It is noteworthy that astronomers say that galaxies, which are vast distances away from us, don't necessarily appear smaller due to distance, only dimmer.

As of 1996, telescope technology has enabled astronomers to gain information of objects as distant from Earth as 11 billion light years.

It has been estimated that 95%-99% of the total mass of the universe is 'dark matter'. One cosmological viewpoint is that this 'dark matter' is the singularity phase of energy/mass which has been singularised by black-hole processing ... and that the universe is close to the end of its expression-mode.

It needs to be borne continually in mind that what our optical and radio telescopes enable us to see is the past history of the universe. If we could know the present status of the astronomical universe, the scenario would be vastly different to what we are presently able to see (which is of the past). It may be that most of what we now see has already been converted to singularity.

Astronomically, we are historians, for we have very little knowledge of the astronomical present.

Our stellar data varies in age from 4.3 light years (for our nearest star) to 11 billion light years (for the most distant astronomical objects yet observed). In addition to this historical data, we need to know the current status of the universe. We need to have historical data progressed to current status: We need to know what is going on now.

All sensation takes time to reach us: We are historical creatures: We live historically, and in historical terms.

As to genetic responsibility, we can no longer rely on natural selection for, due to government and voluntary social support services, we have counteracted 'survival of the fittest' mechanisms. Who then is now responsible for our genes? ... we are responsible, and we are responsible to improve them.

Every moment we are making decisions, usually about small everyday things ... and the Absolute is wholly in each of these things. Just because we treat some things as small and inconsequential does not make them so. We may rightly say that we exercise leverage best, on the Absolute, through small things ... that is, through the things over which we have control.

As existence is an absolute integral, to control any one aspect is to control the whole.

To consciously change the pattern of one's behaviour is to consciously change the pattern of the whole.

Thoughts tend to be patterned but, by our will, we are able to change or break or eliminate these patterns. The power of our will has ascendancy over mind.

The absoluteness of existence places absolute power at the will of each one of us.

As a species, we are fast becoming aware of our absolute power, and the nuclear advent is a critical watershed point in our cognition. However, we are slow to recognise our absolute power at the level of the individual.

Absolute control over events requires conscious control. If we want to influence things and events, we need to be absolutely and vibrantly aware of every detail and to fully empathise with every detail. We cannot have absolute influence over things and events which we deal with in a programmed, automatic or subconscious mode. When we put our behaviour on automatic, we renounce or suspend our absolute powers in relation to such behaviour.

The carrying out of routine techniques and processes tends to stultify our creativity.

It is an implication of absoluteness that control over micro phenomena involves control over macro phenomena.

For control to be effective, it must be conscious control. The essence of control is will.

As more time becomes devoted to computer/TV/video and other attention-capturing engagements, people become less creative and they have less control over themselves and their environment. In a word, they become more robotic. Those who program more activities, become more programmed themselves ... and they progressively depreciate their status as human beings.

If a person spends a great deal of time watching TV and videos, and computer-surfing, there is a real danger of progressively losing the power of independent creative thought.

One has to decide whether to be sucked into the information event-horizon or to consciously hold off and develop one's own individuality and creative will ... in one's own universe, as it were.

As I see it, one needs to tread a razor-edged path, by accessing all available useful information while avoiding being sucked into the maelstrom. This calls for an effort of will ... with discernment and much quiet contemplative thinking.

Do we indeed have a black-hole of information, wherein knowledge is being processed to singularity? Perhaps so ... but, if so, does it process all mental and spiritual awareness to singularity? The astronomers' blackhole is, after all, a physical phenomenon ... and there is no reason to conceive of it also as a mental and spiritual black-hole. We should not take the black-hole analogy too far.

There is an intriguing similarity between the astronomical black-hole and the information black-hole. Both are conversion systems; both are highly attractive; both are entropic maelstroms; both are dispersive of individuality ... and, whereas no light comes from the astronomical black-hole, no enlightenment comes from the information black-hole.

It may of course be argued that black-holes reintegrate to singularity, and that the information maelstrom does the same ... and, as to individuality, is not singularity the ultimate individuality?

Entertainment, excitement and friendship are sweeteners in joining the information maelstrom, which is also characterised by a feeding frenzy and a kind of addiction. Once sucked in, it is hard to break away.

To avoid being sucked into the information black-hole calls for a continuing effort of will.

To avoid being sucked into the information black-hole, one must think and behave as an individual, rather than as a sheep in a flock.

When we contemplate the information black-hole hypothesis from the viewpoints of idealist philosophy, we find that the black-hole analogy becomes more tenable, for idealists point out that there is no evidence that anything exists independently of our percepts. All information is percept-data, including information re astronomical black-holes. Everything we know of these black-holes is in terms of our percepts.

An information black-hole and an astronomical blackhole are both hypothetical concepts: Neither the one nor the other can be proven to represent independent phenomena, which exist independently of our minds.

If, as posited in this network, existence is an absolute, it follows that singularity is omnipresent. Thus, we should not be surprised to find that reintegrative systems are ubiquitous ... that black-hole conversion mechanisms are universal.

The many questions, arising from the information blackhole concept, include:

It is undeniable that information is proliferating: Its increase seems to be exponential ... and truth seems to be fractionating into an ever increasing range of viewpoints. Most people are becoming more confused as to the nature and purposes of existence ... and as to their personal role and powers and objectives. They tend to give up on it all, and to go with the crowd willy-nilly. It appears that most people are being sucked into the information black-hole.

Where faith is strong, it provides protection. This-is an important aspect for consideration.

The paths of yoga (reintegration) call for love, devotion, faith, dedication, mind control, breath control and health exercises. The will-power which is developed is in service of the Absolute. Information, per se, is only a minor factor. From first to last, the priority of yoga is to awaken our awareness of the Absolute ... and faith becomes reality.

A person, who is strong in faith, gives his/her faith priority over information. The tide of information washes this way and that, but the rock of faith is unmoved.

Disputable facts or undoubted faith, this is the choice we each have to make.

Absolutely and causatively integrated, macro phenomena grow from and are implicit in micro phenomena ... and micro phenomena grow from and are implicit in macro phenomena. This gives us pause to consider the implications of the large range of micro behaviour, over which we have personal and direct control.

As individuals, we have absolute power over our own micro behaviour, but do we have the will to exercise it? The start-button and open-sesame of absolute power is in the custody of, and at the disposal of the individual will.

What emerges from all this, is that the individual is of supreme importance. The answer lies not in following the crowd and not in surfing the computer but in becoming aware of one's absolute being. We are each on a path of self-discovery and, by exercising our will, success is assured.

With regard to the First Commandment, Christ said that we should love the Lord our God with all our heart and all our mind and all our soul ... and He gave us his own Commandment, that we should love one another. As God, the Absolute, is wholly in each one of us, how can we truly love Him unless we love one another? Christ's Commandment is of prime importance, and is really implicit in the First Commandment.

In effect, the First Commandment enjoins us to identify with the Absolute. By following this Commandment, we gain ascendancy over any and every force which may assail us.

In order to survive physically, our species has been committed to competitive struggle and survival of the fittest ... but now, in order to survive spiritually, we need to love one another. The advent of Christ's teachings marks the transition of our species from physical survival to spiritual survival and our transmutation from physical to spiritual forms.

Both mystics and romantics are strongly intuitive: They have a feeling for and a longing for that which is infinite and absolute.

We have constructed life as a puzzle and with many obstacles ... and we have done this to stimulate and provoke our creative genius.

As Schlegel has indicated, every relation of man to the infinite can be said to belong to religion. The mathematics of transfinity may also be said to be religious. Are not Cantor's aleph-plus categories religious concepts?

Plotinus noted that, as the product is always less than the producer, the One's products can only be a plurality. The knowledge of the One (the Absolute) can only be expressed in a plurality of viewpoints. This argument supports the present propositional network approach which marshals a plurality of viewpoints as a basis for predicting the future.

Time arises from the self-realisation of singularity ... that is, from the self-realisation of the Absolute.

All space is singular and of singularity: Space is a characteristic of singularity.

Space is a creation of our species.

Differentiation creates space.

To differentiate is to create that which is differentiated and to create its space.

To magnify is to create space.

Astronomical telescopic magnification expands our universe ... that is, it extends the space of our universe.

Magnification differentiates, fractionates and divides ... and, in so doing, magnification creates space.

Differentiation, fractionation and division all create space.

Fractal downscaling is a form of magnification, and it extends space in the minutiae.

Our species is a creature of singularity, which grows by the differentiation of singularity. All of our senses differentiate.

Differentiation creates not only space but also time. Space and time are integrally and inseparably related: The one is not possible without the other.

One differentiates singularity in terms of time-space. When one differentiates that which is timeless and spaceless, one creates time-space. Differentiation creates time-space.

Our species creates time-space by its living sentience ... that is, by its being.

Our living species reaches out, and creates the space of its reaching and the duration (time) of its reaching. Time-space is a function of life and of the sentience and perceptions of life.

Perception differentiates, fractionates, divides and magnifies ... and it creates, of singularity, that which it identifies in these processes.

Life (being) is an imperative function of singularity (the Absolute).

Existence is an exercise of magnification.

The quality of perception is transfinite. We focus and identify, in finite terms, that which is transfinite. Transfinitely, there is no time-space; transfinitely, singularity is omnipresent; transfinitely, past/present/future are one.

The time-space things, which we create of singularity, are what are essential to our being as a species. These time-space things are constructs and they are conditional upon perception and interpretation: They are non-substantive.

The perception of growth, development, experience and discovery, create the perception of time ... but we remain singular and absolute. That, which is singular and absolute, may fractionate and self-examine but it remains singular and absolute.

Every created thing was, is now, and always will be: It is so because it is absolute. Our senses are like a pair of binoculars, moving with changing focus in timespace perception ... but what we are sensing is absolute. Just because we move our focus away from things and call them past or history, does not reduce their absolute status.

Creation is absolute and causation is absolute: They are not time-phased. We may perceive of creation and causation in time-space terms but the origination of any thing is not of time-space ... and the thing it self is absolute.

We tend to think that, because our memory of a person fades, that person is somehow diminished. This may be so in our perception but it is not so in absolute terms. Our perception of a 'departed' person may be dimmed and diminished, but the person is not. Time-space perception is real, but it is not adequate to absolute reality.

We tend to be confused by the time-space aspect of perception. We tend to grant reality to what we perceive and not to grant reality to what we do not perceive. When we perceive in terms of time-space, we restrict our reality: But reality is unrestricted ... it is absolute.

Although scientific facts remain such, their imputed meanings are provisional, changeable and disputable.

It is important to bear in mind that a proposition which is not entirely correct may still be useful for purposes of prediction.

A proposition presents a concept but does not prove it ... but a proposition may be so cogent as to constitute an undoubted truth of equal or higher status than any possible proof.

The grasp of the truth is both intellectual and intuitive ... and it precedes all arguments.

In the book of John, Jesus is said to have referred to the Holy Ghost as the Comforter and as the Spirit of Truth. As truth is inspirational and directional, the Holy Ghost guides us and is our spiritual and moral conscience.

J.P.Willer (1801-1858) proposed the law of specific nerve energies, which states that each sensory system will respond to a stimulus (whether mechanical, chemical, thermal or electric) in the same way, specific to itself. Man only perceives the effects on his sensory systems.

A. De Bary (1831-1888) showed that lichens consist of fungus and an alga in intimate partnership, forming a hardy union with mutual benefits. De Bary named this relationship symbiosis. This term is used now to cover three kinds of specialised association between individuals of different species, including parasitism (where one organism gains and the other loses), commensalism (where one organism gains and the other neither loses or gains), and mutualism (which is a mutually beneficial association). The lichen example is of the last mentioned category of symbiosis.

F.J.Cohn (1828-1898) came to the important conclusion that the protoplasms (cell contents) of plant and animal cells are essentially similar.

M.Rubner (1854-1932) showed that metabolism is equivalent to burning at body temperature. His surface law states that the rate of metabolism is proportional to the superficial area of a mammal and not to its weight. He also found that recently fed animals lost heat more quickly than fasting animals ... pointing to the presence of a cellular regulatory system. He confirmed that metabolic energy production is equal to ordinary combustion, despite the temperature difference. Rubner compared the energy available from various foods and showed that carbohydrates, fats and proteins were broken down equally readily, and that a mammal's energy usage for growth purposes is a constant fraction of its total energy output.

A.E.Garrod (1857-1936) conducted research which suggested a connection between an altered gene (mutation) and a block in a metabolic pathway.

W. Bateson found that some genes can interact, so that certain traits are not inherited independently, which is in conflict with Mendel's laws. This interaction results from 'linkage', that is, genes being close together on the same chromosome. Bateson had decided, by 1894, that species do not develop continuously by gradual change but evolve discontinuously in a series of jumps.

A.Harden (1865-1940) found that sugar phosphates are essential intermediates in fermentation, and that conversion of carbohydrate to lactic acid in muscle is intimately related to fermentation.

F.P.Rous (1879-1970) showed that some cancers are caused by a virus. Ln 1911, he showed that a spontaneous cancerous tumour in a fowl could be transplanted by cell grafts and that even cell-free extracts from it could convey the tumour. This pointed to the cause being a virus. Rous proposed that carcinogenesis typically involves one or both of two processes, initiation and promotion ... which can require two different agents that may be chemical, viral, radiological or mechanical.

E.D. Adrian showed (circa 1925) that a nerve transmits information to the brain on the intensity of a stimulus by frequency modulation. As the intensity rises, the number of discharges per second in the nerve also rises.

H.S.Gasser (1888-1963) discovered, in the 1920's, that nerve fibres differed in their conduction speeds. The thickest mammalian fibres (such as those activating the muscles) are the quickest conductors, while pain is felt through thin slow-conductor fibres. Many other properties of nerves are related to varying conduction speeds.

H.J.Muller (1890-1967) believed natural mutations to be rare and usually detrimental and recessive. He saw the gene itself as the true basis of life and evolution, with its self-reproductive abilities being the central property of all living matter. In 1926, Muller produced many mutations by using X-rays. He concluded that mutations are due to chemical reactions.

In the 1940's, L.Pauling proposed that sicklecell disease resulted from a change in the normal amino acid content of haemoglobin. Proof of this gave the earliest example of a disease being traced to its precise origin at the molecular level.

In 1952, A.Turing questioned the provenance of shapes and patterns in biological phenomena. He maintained that chemicals, diffusing through tissue and consequent reactions, can explain shape and pattern formation. He developed equations describing a distribution of reactants, leading from homogeneity to pattern formation.

By way of preface, a bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria. A.Sershey demonstrated the informationcarrying capabilites of bacteriophage DNA. Hershey's best-known work was done in the early 1950's with Martha Chase, when they proved that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophage. They used phage, in which the DNA core had been labelled with radioactive phosphorous and the protein coat of the phage with radioactive sulphur. Their work showed that, when phage attacks a bacterial cell, it injects the DNA into it, leaving the protein coat on the outside ... but the injected DNA causes production of new phage, complete with protein. The DNA must carry the information leading to the formation of the entire phage entity. Avery had been cautious re the status of DNA as an information carrier ... but Hershey proved it.

H.O.Wieland (1877-1957) showed that three bile acids can be converted into cholanic acid, which he also made from cholesterol. It followed that the bile acids and cholesterol had the same basic carbon structure ... the parent steroid skeleton.

H.A.Krebs (1900-1981) identified the citric acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle as the central energy-generating process in most cells. It occurs in their mitochondria and generates energy for the entire organism. Krebs showed how glucose is broken down in a cycle of changes to give carbon dioxide, water and energy. He discovered the energy generating cycle in living cells.

T. Dobzhansky (1900-1975) put forward good arguments for his view that a new species cannot arise from a single mutation and that, for a new species to form, it must be isolated for a period to protect it from disruption. The isolation could be geographical or due to differences in habitat or in the breeding season.

George Gamov (1904-1968) made a major contribution to solving the problem of how the order of the four different kinds of nucleic acid bases in DNA chains could govern the synthesis of proteins from amino acids. He realised that short sequences of the bases could form a 'code' capable of carrying information for the synthesis of proteins ... and that, since there are 20 amino acids making up proteins, the code must consist of blocks of three nucleic acid bases in order to provide a sufficient vocabulary of instructions.

In 1956, A.Kornberg made an outstanding discovery by isolating an enzyme from Escherichia coli, now known as DNA polymerase I, which he showed was able to synthesise DNA from nucleotide molecules, in the absence of living cells, provided that the reaction mixture included some natural DNA to act as a template and primer.

In 1955, F.Crick had suggested that the biosynthesis of proteins from amino acids, under the control of an RNA template, involved an intermediate adaptor molecule. In 1956, P.Berg identified the first adaptor, now called a transfer RNA: This is a small RNA molecule which transfers a specific amino acid, methionine. Berg later developed a method for introducing selected genes into 'foreign' bacteria, thereby causing the bacteria to produce the protein characteristic of the cells from which the genes had been taken. The technique of recombinant DNA genetic engineering enables bacterial synthesis of a desired protein, such as insulin or interferon.

G.E.Palade worked on the fine structure of cells, as revealed by electron microscopy. He showed that an organelle, the mitochondrion (about 1000 of these being present in each animal cell), is the site where energy (in the form of adenosine triphosphate) is generated by enzymic oxidation. In 1956, Palade discovered smaller organelles (ribosomes) which were rich in RNA and showed them to be the sites of protein synthesis.

A.Isaacs was working on the way viruses interact with one another and, in 1957, he reported on interferon, a substance released from cells in response to viral infection. Interferon inhibits the replication of viruses and is now known to consist of a group of related proteins which are able to block the action of viral m-RNA. Interferons have been used in clinical trials as anticancer agents: Interferon inhibits growth of many tumour cells more effectively than it inhibits growth of normal cells. Interferon is the most rapidly manufactured of the known natural body defenses against viruses: It appears within hours of viral infection and continues to be produced while infection persists. A causal relationship, between interferon and natural recovery from most viral infections, is strongly supported by evidence. Difficulties in obtaining interferons have delayed the testing of therapeutic value. Three different interferons have been identified: Fibroepithelial, leukocyte, and immune. These are probably coded by three distinct cell genes. The three interferons have differences in amino acid sequence, stimulus for induction, producer cell, and role in the body.

J.Monod (1910-1976) introduced the idea of operons, groups of genes with related functions which are clustered together on a chromosome and are controlled by a small end-region of the operon called an operator. This in turn can be made inactive by a repressor which combines with and switches off the operator. This hypothesis was developed in 1961 to include the idea of messenger RNA (m-RNA) which carries genetic information from the DNA of the chromosomes (the operon) to the surface of the ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs.

In 1962, V.C.Wynne-Edwards proposed that animal populations use hormonal devices and social mechanisms to control population size.

In the 1960's, N.D.Zinder discovered bacterial transduction. This is the transfer, by a phage entity, of genetic material from one bacterium to another. Zinder's discovery led to new understanding of the location and behaviour of bacterial genes.

Proteins may carry electric charges, and can be made to migrate in solution by the application of an electric field. This technology, called electrophoresis, was developed by A.Tiselius (1902-1971).

Circa 1970, C.Anfinsen made discoveries relating to the shape and activities of enzymes. From the work of Moore and Stein, Anfinsen knew that enzymes owe their catalytic ability, not only to the sequence of amino acid units, but also to the specific shape adopted by the chainlike molecule. Anfinsen showed that, if this shape is disturbed, it can be restored by putting the molecule into the precise environment (of temperature, salt etc) favourable for it, when it immediately takes up the one shape which restores its enzymic activity. He showed that other proteins behaved similarly.

In 1970, D.Baltimore announced his discovery of the enzyme 'reverse transcriptase', which can transcribe RNA into DNA, and does so in some tumour viruses. Before Baltimore's work, it had been assumed that the converse of transcription did not occur. H.M.Tamin independently discovered the same enzyme.

In 1973, S.H.Snyder discovered receptor sites, for synthetic morphine-type drugs, in the brain. The sites were found in the mammalian limbic system, in the central region of the brain which is associated with the perception of pain. Snyder reasoned that these receptors have not evolved to accept synthetic drugs, and their existence implies that natural morphine-type substances are probably available from within the body. Sure enough, within a few years of Snyder's discovery, endorphins were found by other researchers. They are highly potent analgesics and it is now known that they are peptides, formed in the pituitary gland.

Nitric oxide (NO) is essential in digestion, bloodpressure regulation and antimicrobial defense. When released by cells in the walls of blood vessels, it relaxes neighbouring muscle cells ... and the vessel dilates and blood-pressure falls. In the body's defense system, NO acts as an antitumour agent and it also combats bacteria. In the brain, No acts as a neurotransmitter, and there is evidence that it has a key place in learning and memory.

B.McClintock (1902-1992) discovered a class of mutant genes in maize. She came up with the novel idea that it was a function of some genes to control other genes, and that some are able to move on the chromosome and control a number of other genes. This concept, of 'jumping genes', is now well accepted.

By 1976, it had been confirmed that healthy cells do indeed contain dormant viral genes. By 1989, Bishop, Varmus and others had found over 40 genes which can potentially induce cancer.

By the late 1970s, Hamilton Smith and co-workers had isolated a number of restriction enzymes. By allowing the controlled splitting of genes to give genetically active fragments, the restriction enzymes allowed the possibility of genetic engineering and of DNA sequencing to be developed.

It is noted that, while the genome is the totality of DNA in the cell nucleus, genes comprise only about 2% of the genome. The nature and function of the remaining 98% is unknown. It is expected that the Human Genome Project (HGP), which started in 1990, will throw some light on the unknown 98%.

A.Jeffreys originated DNA fingerprinting. He realised that some very variable and repeated parts of the human genome (the full DNA sequence) are highly characteristic of individuals and so can be used for identification purposes. A DNA profile can be obtained from a small sample of material (semen, blood, or tissue) which may be on clothing and may even be years old. The sample is extracted to give its DNA: This is fragmented by enzymic action and the fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis: These are then radioactively labelled. A barcode type of pattern, with its bars differing from one another in density and spacing is derived. A chance match between prints of two different people is held to have a probability of about one in a million. DNA fingerprinting was first proposed by Jeffreys in 1984, and has been much used since 1987.

In 1898, Rutherford showed that there were at least two types of radiation emitted by radioactive elements: Alpha rays, which carried positive electric charge and were not very penetrating; and beta rays, which carried negative electric charge and were more penetrating. In 1900, Paul Villard found a third component, called gamma rays, which carried no electric charge and were not easily stopped or detected. More work, mainly by Rutherford, showed that alpha rays were in fact helium ions, that beta rays were electrons, and that radoactive emissions caused the transmutation of one element into another. Gamma rays are ultra-high-energy X-rays.

In 1913, F.Soddy posited that emission of an alpha particle (a helium nucleus) from an atom reduces its atomic number by two, while the emission of a beta particle (an electron) increases the atomic number by one.

In 1925, S.A.Goudsmit, with Uhlenbeck, developed the idea that electrons possess intrinsic quantised angular momentum (spin), with an associated magnetic moment, and used this to explain many features of atomic spectra. Spin later emerged as a natural consequence of relativistic quantum mechanics in Dirac's theory of the electron (1928) and was found to be a property of most elementary particles, including the proton and neutron.

G.N.Lewis (1875-1946) noted that nearly all chemical compounds contain an even number of electrons, and he reasoned that the electron pair was probably particularly important ... and he suspected that a shared pair might be equated with a covalent bond. Lewis also saw the importance of electron pairs with respect to base and acid substances. He defined a base as a substance that has a pair that can be used to complete the stable shell of another atom, and an acid as a substance which is able to accept a pair from another atom in order to form a stable group of electrons.

In 1932, C.D.Anderson discovered the positron. He identified the mass of a positron as about that of an electron. As positrons are positively charged, Anderson concluded that they were positive electrons. Positrons are inherently stable but, as they are antiparticles of electrons, the two annihilate each other.

In 1932, C.D.Anderson discovered an elementary particle which he called a mu-meson or muon. This particle was negatively charged and had about 130 times the mass of an electron. Muons are intrinsically unstable and they decay rapidly.

In 1932, Chadwick discovered the neutron, a particle similar to the proton but without electric charge. This similarity prompted Heisenberg to describe the proton and neutron as different states of a particle called the nucleon, with spin-up and spin-down.

In 1938, C.F.Weizsdcker suggested that the energy of stars is created in a proton fusion reaction whereby four hydrogen nuclei (protons) are converted into a helium nucleus. The reaction prerequires a temperature of approximately one billion degrees Kelvin.

In 1938, studies of cosmic radiation (which is a flux of high-energy particles from outer space) revealed the tracks of a particle with a mass intermediate between that of the electron and that of the proton. This was subsequently called the mu-meson or muon. It is now known to be one of the class of fundamental particles called leptons.

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