5400 - 5599
Informal trading is increasing, worldwide. For example, official figures indicate that there is no trade between Cambodia and Vietnam, and only minimal trade between China and Vietnam ... but trade is booming over these borders. China/Vietnam trade is estimated at $500 million p.a. Informal goods from Malaysia flow into Thailand and Indonesia. Indonesia's official trade figures are completely misleading. We have an increase of smuggling internationally and of barter and undisclosed cash deals internally. Increasing social entropy is accompanied by increasing informal trading.
Investment is gradually becoming a slightly pejorative word. The chances of losing invested capital are increasing month by month. More people are coming to realise that capital needs to be safeguarded and not risked.
Worldwide, average real incomes are decreasing. In general, capital will reduce (not gain) in value, in future.
Lending will increasingly become a foolish business, as risks increase faster than rates of interest. Not 'gilt edged' but 'solid gold' collateral is essential.
As entropy proceeds and chaos increases, people generally will increasingly distrust complex rationalisations: They will rely more and more upon their common sense, instincts and intuition ... and they will be more and more pragmatic.
Most people will prefer leaders who concentrate on simple truths and common sense.
The following points are noted concerning universities and tertiary education, as of 1994:
- (a) Governments are looking less to universities for advice, and more to 'think-tank' consultancies.
- (b) University academic achievements, although still important, are no longer an overweaning, central, intellectual force.
- (c) Universities concentrate on rationale, rather than on content ... and on complex reasoning, rather than on pragmatism and common sense.
- (d) Managerially, universities are often failing to cope with the explosion of knowledge. Universities are often carried along in the wake of new developments rather than being at the helm or in the engine room, so to speak.
- (e) Today, there is a feeling abroad that knowledge is too important to be left to the leadership of ivory-tower and bureaucratic academics.
- (f) often university power-seeking politics take precedence over the advancement of knowledge.
- (g) As Governments are tending to reduce spending on tertiary education and as expenditure on research equipment increases and as salary levels of senior staff climb, student fees are increasing rapidly.
- (h) Advances in communications technology mean that universities no longer have a monopoly over the dissemination of knowledge. Distance-learning is proving to be cost effective ... and universities are losing the leverage of in-house lectures.
- (i) Industry-sponsored research is increasing.
- (j) Many Governments are looking closely at university reform.
- (k) Students are becoming rebellious at the high and increasing levels of fees, and at the sub-standard levels of university management, and at the overemphasis on robotic regurgitation of crammed knowledge and under-emphasis on creative, individualised learning.
People rarely do selfless things for the good of society. Individuals do things for the good of the larger group only if it is also for the good of the individual.
As political power moves from governmental institutions to individuals, so religious power moves from church institutions to individuals. Social entropy is characterised by the de-institutionalisation of power.
As soon as a member of parliament takes an executive office, he or she becomes a bureaucrat. Members of parliament have both a legislative and a bureaucratic function. The more powerful members of parliament are invariably office-bearing executives of Government ... and they may be rightly seen as democrats who have undergone a role change to become bureaucrats. This bureaucratisation epitomises the inherent falsity and hypocrisy of representative democracy. As bureaucrats, members of parliament become agents of institutions rather than agents of the people, and they assume the role of master over those they were elected to serve.
Only those should lead who know where they are going and how to get there; only those should lead who know why they are going and what will be done when they arrive; only those should lead who know the destination and the journey and the outcome.
A propositional network, such as this, is an intelligence network which uses all available sources of information as assets. Its originator and operator are, respectively, originator and operator of an intelligence network.
Apart from specialised publications, the media translation and communication of scientific and technical research findings is generally poor.
To buy cheap imports (under GATT), increases local unemployment and supports low-wage production in the countries of origin.
GATT membership reduces the power of individual governments to protect their people from the consequences of importing cheap goods.
Green' production is generally higher-cost production. As GATT encourages low-cost production, it encourages 'non-Green' production: GATT is an environmentally negative system.
Human rights' production is generally higher-cost production. As GATT encourages low-cost production, it encourages 'non human rights' production: GATT is a humanely negative system.
Progress in the understanding of existence is impeded by the following tendencies:
- (a) We tend to be stuck in the 'mud' of old paradigms ... that is, stuck in old ways of looking at things.
- (b) we tend to give too much attention to micro detail and too little attention to macro overview.
- (c) We tend too much towards specialisation and compartmentalisation, at the expense of coordinated knowledge.
- (d) We tend to lack openness, imagination and boldness.
- (e) We tend to be bound by restrictive rules and practices of our own making.
- (f) We tend to neglect the benefits flowing from methodologies, such as instrumentalism and propositional networking.
Fear of loss of sanity is common and people obstruct themselves with cautions of unreality and of supposed dangers of overactive imagination. The territories of mind and spirit are largely unknown to most ... but we are destined to dwell there and we are preparing ourselves. By religion, music, arts and imaginative entertainments we are preparing ourselves ... and, by drugs, many are casting themselves adrift from the old realities. All these happenings, although often ethically questionable, are syndromatic of the metamorphosis which the species is experiencing.
The leaders of the people may be perceived as puppet-masters of the people ... but, as leaders say and do what the people want them to say and do, are not the leaders also puppets?
The people are both puppets and puppet-masters. They let leaders pull their strings, but the leaders can only lead the people to do what the people want to do ... so the people make puppets of themselves. All is puppetry.
All human relations are a puppet show. The people are the puppet-masters of their leaders ... and the people are the puppets of their leaders ... and everyone is both a puppet and a puppet-master: Human societies are societies of mimics.
The puppetry of public meetings, where oratory and rhetoric are used for id-arousal, is a well-known phenomenon of mob psychology.
According to a 1994 British crime survey, recorded crimes in the United Kingdom account for only 30% of all crimes.
As Japanese real estate is favourite collateral for bank loans, a weak Japanese property market means a weak credit market and low financial confidence and low flows of Japanese capital overseas and a stronger yen.
As the Japanese property market is likely to remain weak (1994-1997), and as the Japanese balance of payments is likely to remain strong, and as capital outflows are likely to remain low, it follows that the yen is likely to remain strong ... but see the next proposition.
The previous proposition will be valid 1994 through 1997 provided that there are no major natural disasters or major crop failures or major civil disturbances or major wars involving Japan.
On 1994 projections, New Zealand's annual production of timber could double by 2010.
New Zealand's forestry exports totalled NZ$2.6 billion in the year to March 1994 (up 23% on 1993). By destination, 1994 exports were:
||NZ$ 733 million
||NZ$ 733 million
||NZ$ 374 million
||NZ$ 144 million
||NZ$ 596 million
||NZ$ 2,600 million
A 48year period analysis of stock/share dealings (of UK, USA & European markets) showed strong performance New Year to April; slow from May on; sales picking up gradually from September, leading to a sharp lift late in the year. The market jargon is 'sell in May and go away'. In the northern hemisphere, its back to indoors and to making money in the cold months.
The World Bank estimates that, in 1988, about 38% of the Philippines' population lived below the poverty line (as compared with 21% in 1971).
A May 1994 European newspaper-sponsored poll of twelve European countries showed public opinion in favour and (against) a Federal Europe, as follows:
|All twelve countries
|All twelve countries
Belgium, Greece and Italy were all in favour of federation.
In general, as of May 1994, Europeans do not think that things can be done better federally than as separate nations. People believe that federation is being proposed to satisfy bureaucrats and politicians, rather than to satisfy the European voters themselves.
The unemployed person knows the full truth of Shylock's plaint ... 'you take my life when you do take the means whereby I live'. It is not enough to pay a dole to an unemployed person. Humanely, every person should be given the opportunity to work and serve, within the scope of the person's capabilities and interests.
It is cruel and inhuman for any society to so arrange its affairs that some of its members are deprived of the opportunity to work and serve, within the scope of their capabilities and interests. Nor do any political or other creeds excuse this cruelty and inhumanity. If machines and automation be adduced in excuse, we should then ask whether men or machines are the masters.
There are no numbers in heaven ... and there are no computers in heaven: We should think about this.
The most important things cannot be numbered at all. Numbers have no soul or life of their own.
We will question the tyranny of numbers, and realise that we have no real need to rule our lives so much by them.
From now on, we will start to come out of the number syndrome: We will start to behave more qualitatively and less quantitatively.
In 1993, farm-produce subsidies increased in Japan and in the European Community, as a whole. Farm-produce subsidies (as a % of the value of production) were:
||75% (top of list)
Psychological personality testing, as an analytical process, reduces and lessens the whole human personality ... in such manner as the sum of the parts is less than the pre-analysed whole. This reductionist loss is, I believe, common to all analytical processes.
Each person has a gene-personality and a monad-personality. The latter is an attractor and it continues from life to life. The monad-personality is a high-frequency being, while the gene-personality is of a lower vibe frequency.
When the mergence of gene and monad personalities is imperfect, mental ill-health may ensue ... and, when two or more monads compete for the same gene-personality, schizophrenic behaviour develops.
No man ever understands quite his own artful dodges to escape from the grim shadow of self-knowledge.
Subtlety, and meaning within meaning ... and all like the merest puff of wind ... and even more subtle, without a word or a gesture ... a reaching out or listening of auras ... or of that which we commune with ourselves ... and we make of ourselves a voided vessel, that into it may flow inspiration.
In human affairs, suction can often be more successful than pushing ... particularly when the motivations of the target predispose it to yield.
In the West, facts are separate from beliefs ... but, in the East, beliefs are very often taken to be facts.
Charisma, in a leader, may be attractive and entertaining but, without other important traits (such as intelligence, practicality, foresight, compassion, shrewdness, integrity and mental health), a charismatic leader may prove to be a liability to his people.
Where other leadership abilities are stronger in a leader than his intelligence and where his intelligence is not adequate to his leadership, there is danger to his people.
In general, in modern societies, people buy what they think they want, rather than what they need. Advertising and peer-group behaviour have a major influence on what people think they want.
To fully understand a thing, we pull it to pieces ... that is, we analyse it and dissect it ... and then we control it. But, in the process, we largely destroy the original thing. If we analyse love, we partly destroy it; if we analyse justice, we partly destroy it. For instance, to fully understand the jury system leads to controlling verdicts which leads to controlling justice. When individuals, who were previously subject to justice, start to control justice, then justice itself is being destroyed.
Conduct is three-fourths of our life, and its largest concern.
The eye is a sensor and it is not our primary organ of vision: The visual cortex of our brain is our primary organ of vision.
Following Wertheimer and Koffka, the principal laws of gestalt are:
- The law of proximity. Stimulus elements that are close together tend to be perceived as a group.
- The law of similarity. Similar stimuli tend to be grouped.
- The law of closure. Stimuli tend to be grouped into complete figures.
- The law of good continuation. Stimuli tend to be grouped so as to minimise change or discontinuity.
- The law of symmetry. Regions bounded by symmetrical boarders tend to be perceived as coherent figures.
- The law of simplicity. Ambiguous stimuli tend to be resolved in' favour of the simplest alternative.
- The law of common fate. If a group of dots were moving with uniform velocity through a field of similar stationary dots, the moving dots would be perceived as a coherent group.
Perceptrons are machines which can perceive and which can learn from their environment.
A cogniser is a synthetic neural network.
To cognise is to perceive or be conscious of something for the first time.
Cognisers are machines which are modelled on the human brain.
Simultaneously, the brain processes and melds new information and recalled information.
The brain allocates its processing functions amongst billions of nerve cells (neurons).
Design work, on microchips which function like neurons, incorporates non-computational mechanisms.
Cognisers are distinguished from computers in that they use a neural approach, rather than a reductionist approach, to information processing.
Causal connections are heavily emphasised in cogniser design.
The complex causal interactions, within cognisers, model living nervous systems.
Computers process inputs from state to state, according to pre-programming ... but cognisers don't have sets of states: Cognisers use the same causal connections which brains use: Cognisers are designed to exhibit genuinely intelligent behaviour.
Cognisers perceive meaning by learning from experience: They learn about the causal connections among objects.
The neural networks, of the brain, use association, generalisation and self-organisation to evaluate the many aspects of a problem.
The human brain is unparametered, but computers are limited by deterministic programming.
Whereas the essential function of a computer is computation, the essential function of a cogniser is cognition.
The major design problem of cogniser technology is how to incorporate the capability of quality-cognition ... that is, how to cognise beauty, justice, courage, integrity, humour, love, compassion, intuition and the whole gamut of subtle and essentially human meanings.
The wonderful powers and effectiveness of the human brain derive largely from its superb interconnectivity.
Currently, as many as four million transistors can be accommodated on a single microchip. Microchip densities may be increased further, but not indefinitely: Atomic limitations may be reached before long.
The brain consists of approximately 100 billions of autonomous neurons, all of which are active simultaneously. Each neuron has thousands of interconnecting fibres, called dendrites, and a single output arm, called an axon.
Artificial intelligence (AI), is the term applied to systems which purport to behave like the human brain.
It is noteworthy that humans become bored with lengthy computations. A practical reason for this is that excessive degrees of accuracy tend to impede a system's ability to control a process. Obsession with accuracy is interruptive.
Intelligent behaviour uses 'close-enough' accuracy and gets on with the overall task of control. Computers usually aren't programmed to know what 'close enough' is.
Computers are confined to their programmes, whereas humans are able to learn.
In many aspects of experience, high degrees of accuracy are spurious and counter-productive.
No logical calculus has been developed that can simultaneously model mutually contradictory circumstances or propositions.
The brain, while lacking logical organisation and control procedures, is able to evaluate mutually contradictory circumstances or propositions simultaneously, and resolve them in overview and 'feel'.
It seems that an element of randomicity is essential to the brain's resolution of contradictory and/or alternative-choice data.
Nature uses genetic mutation and adaptation to create complex neural systems.
Human cells replicate by processing encoded information, stored in DNA molecules.
Life is a subtle and complex pattern of electrical activity, in a chemical medium.
Living cells spontaneously create species variations.
Dendrites connect with each other at synapses ... microgaps, across which chemical messages are passed from one neuron to another. This communication process is referred to as synaptic firing.
Research may be starting to indicate ways in which the mind may control the immune systems.
Neurons, and their surrounding body-fluids, form tiny electric batteries. Individual neurons act as the poles of internal batteries, which are charged by positive and negative ions, synthesised from sodium chloride.
Normal neurons do not emit a constant, uninterrupted signal: They-emit spikes or pulses of energy. Healthy nerves may only emit signals when going into action. Injured nerves, however, tend to emit a constant 'complaint' flow of signals.
Because of the synaptic gaps between neurons, messages travel along nerve fibres at much less than light-speed. Messages between neurons are passed chemically or electro-chemically, and this slows the rate of communication.
When a neuron fires, little trap-doors open along its axon. The ion-pump system, which controls the doors, responds to changes of electrical potential between positive sodium and negative chloride ions.
The central parts of cells are concerned with growth and genetic inheritance. The part of the nervous system, which adapts to the environment, is more among than in the neurons: The interconnecting patterns are the characteristics which represent learned responses.
Thick nerve fibres are faster communicators than thin fibres.
The complex web, of interconnecting and interstimulating neurons, are the physical mechanism of human thought.
A complex system of neural networks, from brain to sensory organs, participates in the reception, interpretation, recording and recall of primary sense-data.
The entire system of neural networks is involved in receiving, screening, modifying, cognising, recognising and admitting sense-data to the conscious mind.
Recently evolved, highly-qualitative functions of the brain, are located mainly in the outer cerebral cortex ... but, importantly, the macro neural system works as a whole.
The oldest structures of the brain, from an evolutionary viewpoint, are at the brain stem: These control the bodily functions, such as heart-rate and physical positioning. The more recently evolved parts of the brain handle control, co-ordination, short-term memory and emotional responses. The last part of the brain to evolve, the cerebrum, is the main centre of intelligence.
The cerebral cortex (grey matter) contains codes which access perception-linkage to long-term memory banks.
Each part of the cortex is devoted to a particular way of dealing with existence ... whether sight, hearing, tactility, or whatever.
The parietal lobe seems to be concerned with the construction of a visual world overview.
The frontal lobe seems to be concerned with long-range planning and high-level cognition ... that is, comprehension.
The white matter, of the cerebrum, serves as communication medium between the cortex and the older parts of the brain, which are concerned with bodily activities, reception of sensory data, and the triggering of emotions.
The occipital lobe, of the cortex, is concerned with vision.
The temporal lobe handles changing experiences.
In the middle of the brain, the thalamus functions as the central control system: It processes new inputs, in recalled data: It is the main centre of consciousness.
The hippocampus (attached to the thalamus) is concerned with a kind of library function, in the handling of new data: It assigns the duration of memory-storage to be allocated. Repetition of inputs tends to up-grade the allocated memory-storage status. When the hippocampus is surgically removed, new experiences can no longer be stored in memory.
The hypothalamus (attached to the thalamus) controls eating, drinking, sleeping, waking, chemical balances, heartrate, hormones, sex, and other emotional responses.
The pituitary gland (attached to the hypothalamus) is the laboratory which provides chemicals and hormones, in service of emotional reactions initiated from the hypothalamus. The pituitary may be perceived as adding texture to thought.
The hippocampus controls the association functions, and is the key to memory. It gathers associated data, stimulated by sensation-experience, and circulates it, in order to reinforce it and store it. The hippocampus affixes relationships, priorities ... and it summarises and allocates time-sequencing: It identifies, classifies and integrates new incoming data.
The same set of cells recognise an object, no matter the angle from which it is perceived.
Cogniser theory separates the resolution of objects from reasoning about them.
The cogniser approach uses differential equations to describe the electrical behaviour of the neural networks.
Biological systems break a continuous perceptual field into meaningful units, and organise them into pictures or sounds or tastes or smells or textures.
Partially specialised cells compete for attention at the sensing level ... but, as the stimulus works up to higher levels, cooperation begins and the dominating signals are organised into coherent images. It is this competition for dominance, by autonomous cells, which enables humans to learn and adapt. Experience moulds our neural networks to our most pressing needs.
A neuron's axon is sometimes long enough to enable the neuron to stimulate up to tens of thousands of other neurons.
Von Neumann speculated that a full description of human object-recognition abilities might prove to be more complex than the neural networks it purports to describe.
Individual neurons are, at least to some extent, autonomous and able to think for themselves.
If one confines oneself to extrapolating from past and present, one finds that the further one extrapolates into the future, the less reliable one's forecasts become. For a predictor to be successful, he must not only extrapolate but he must also directly access the future, so as to integrate it with past and present.
In the eye, photo-receptors detect and evaluate motion before passing data on to the brain. Carver Mead has developed a synthetic peripheral-vision network for use in microchips.
We cannot see without thinking, and we cannot see without contributing to the creation of what we see.
Each sense carries out some preliminary processing functions. Sense organs sift and screen vast arrays of incoming raw data, and extract the important aspects which are then passed on to the higher cognitive centres of the brain.
According to Shannon and Weaver's information theory, information closely resembles energy.
Energy is the bearer of all qualities: Information is qualitative and it is borne by energy. That, which is borne by energy, is often perceived as energy.
The quality of information does not correlate highly with associated quantities of energy.
The quality of information is relative to subject, message, sender, energy and receiver.
Whereas DNA functions to a programme, neurons do not. At least, we can say that a great deal of neural activity is unprogrammed.
Cognisers may be developed which will extract meaning from existence in a similar manner to processes employed by neural networks ... that is, by learning from experience.
Hopfield came to the conclusion that the human brain is a biocomputer which performs collective computation.
Neural networks are now being replicated electronically, but with only limited success from a qualitative point of view.
Physical systems tend to settle to a state of lowest energy release ... that is, to greatest energy relaxation. Of course, radio-active systems are an exception to this rule.
Enmassed energy tends to relax, while kinetic energy tends to randomise.
All dynamic systems operate to accomplish their operations with a minimum release of kinetic energy.
Collective effects may produce more than the sum of their parts.
Dreaming tends to return a neural system to a neutral state of readiness, which includes normal unweighted access to all memory banks.
Increased activity in a neural sector is like a buildup of pressure, which randomises and generalises activity within the sector.
We have cloud-like areas of activity, which form, shift and disperse, according to the individual's needs. The density and intensity of these clouds relates to the degree of urgency and interest involved.
Neural systems need sleep and dreams.
Recall times vary with different kinds of stored information. Recently experienced memories are, generally, easier to recall. The more information stored in a system, the more unequal recall times become.
From random inputs, memory banks tend to produce chaos patterns, dream patterns and spurious recalls.
Grossberg's learning theory posits competition, between neurons, for synaptic sites.
Neural spiked communications are spaced 1/1000 second apart, as this is their required recharge period after firing. Neural energy output, when firing, is approximately 90 thousandths of a volt. Only integrated patterns of firings produce effects.
Rapidity (frequency), of bursts of firings, itself carries information.
Grossberg has sought to derive a general set of equations to model neural networks. His work indicates that two distinct modes or mechanisms are operative, namely associated learning and cooperative/competitive interaction.
Recognising the importance of stability to all self-organising systems, Grossberg developed a set of equations, describing how electrical networks can be altered without them becoming unstable.
Holistic organisation and constant supervision are seen as essential to the stability of all complex self-governing systems.
At any one time, only a pre-set range of excitation is permitted within the brain.
Stimulus proportionality, or Weber's Law, holds in all nervous systems. The effect of any given sensation is made proportional to its environment by the on-centre/off-surround mechanism. For instance, when listening to loud music, the ear turns down its volume control so low that softer sounds are masked out.
Grossberg came up with a cooperative/competitive pattern recognition theory in which the neural network processes information, while maintaining no clear distinction between memory and processing ... the common field being, simply, patterns of activity. In this theory, the same general capabilities (recognition with contrast enhancement) are employed in both the recognition of familiar objects and the compression of information for economic memory storage.
The brain is capable of monitoring a billion nodes simultaneously, and selecting the ones with the highest level of activity.
A quenching-screening process is employed by the brain, in determining what is to be memory-stored. Traumas result in a lowering of quenching thresholds.
Grossberg has developed mathematical formulae representing the scanning of raw sensory data for patterns, and mental categorisation into objects of perception.
Grossberg's adaptive resonance theory describes, in differential equations, a neural network model that can self-organise, self-stabilise, self-scale, and carry out self-adjusting memory searches in an arbitrary environment. A Grossberg cogniser self-organises its recognition processes from its unique environmental experiences. It is not programmed in any conventional sense.
A Grossberg cogniser seeks patterns in an information channel: It does not rely on programmed measures of information.
Each time a perception is formed, either from sensation or memory-recall, its patterns will be reinforced in memory: The more it is perceived or meditated upon, the better and longer it will be remembered ... and, of course, trauma-association is a wonderful reinforcer. Also, genetic inheritance probably plays a major role in perception patterning and reinforcement.
Although progress is being made with electronic replication of neural processes, a tremendous amount of work remains to be done concerning the chemical aspects of neural processes.
Most problems of qualitative cognition are unresolved. To what extent may cognisers be able to perceive and process qualitative aspects, such as beauty, love, compassion, courage, initiative, humour, integrity, tenacity, equity, and so on? From a qualitative point of view, synthetic intelligence is still in the early pioneering phase.
Neural operations are electro-chemical and cognisers require analog microchips, rather than digital. Neurons communicate with voltage spikes that stimulate the production of chemical transmitters.
Whereas electrical energy dissipates as it travels through wires, neurons can transmit electrical signals with virtually no dissipation of energy. They can do this because they generate electrical energy as they transmit it. The neuristors (of H.D.Crane) copy this method, of undiminished signal transmission, by an infinite fan-out ploy.
It is noteworthy that microchips are being filled experimentally with live nerve cells. A great advantage is that the cells can grow dendritic interconnections.
Hopfield and others, have developed an 'analog-to-digital' signal converter ... a circuit which converts real-world signals into a form readable by digital computers. However, the power loss (by the resistors used in amplification) imposes limits on the potential of this development route. Semi-conductor research apparatus is being used by the Bell laboratories.
The probability of two neurons being interconnected falls off as the inverse of the distance between them.
Using locality of interconnection as a basic working principle, chips have been developed containing devices whose connections decrease as interconnective distance increases. In this manner, a million-neuron system with a billion interconnections, may become a reality.
Work-reduction techniques may be used to more effectively reduce the number/size of synthetic neural networks.
Grossberg says that active regulation of neural activity is necessary in order to maintain its stability. His dynamic equations are designed to ensure stability ... but such design parameters tend to move us away from the replication of actual neural behaviour.
We have a clash between diehard digital proponents, on the one hand, and cogniser proponents on the other.
The simultaneous operation of many small processors matches the parallel operations of neurons, in the brain, better than the serial operation of a single processor system.
By programming a mini-computer to simulate a hypothetical analog learning circuit, Sejnowski has demonstrated the feasibility of machines that can speak. Sejnowski's system employed 300 neurons with 18,000 electronically weighted connections. Binomial 0/1 identification was used to define phonemes, or units of speech. Sequences of phonemes were fed into a sound synthesiser. Sejnowski's system progressively modifies synaptic weights, electronically, during the learning process.
Computer languages are being designed for programming digital computers to imitate neural networks.
Cogniser technology, in mimicking the brain, helps us to understand ourselves ... that is, how we act and react.
By mimicking us, cognisers will be more user-friendly.
Cognisers may be more error-prone than digital computers, but they will be more insightful and more creative.
Cognisers do not separate memory from processing: They mix and meld them.
A computer-cogniser pairing could be useful ... for the computer may guard against mistakes of logic.
Neurons are non-computational: They are qualitative, rather than quantitative.
Quality is transfinite: Neurons are essentially qualitative and transfinite.
When we appreciate the enormous power which neural functions derive from interconnectivity, we appreciate the enormous power of interconnective human communications.
As excessive accuracy tends to impede a system's control ability, we may speculate that 'close-enough' accuracy may be a more powerful tool than 'nth-degree' accuracy.
'Close-enough' accuracy, combined with sound 'overview', may constitute a powerful duo of problem-solving tools.
That the brain is designed to resolve seemingly contradictory interpretations, indicates that it is essentially multi-paradigmatic ... yet societies tend to be uni-paradigmatic: This difference invites consideration.
Societal life may be creatively and developmentally restrictive.
As research indicates control linkage between brain and immune systems (ref. prop. 5486), psycho-somatic causations of disease may be more frequent and powerful than we have hitherto suspected.
Cogniser research and development currently tends to assume that the sensor-neural systems are reacting to outside stimuli. This assumption may be wholly or partly erroneous. We have yet to discover how much of the 'environment' is independent of observers and how much is 'internal' to observers ... and how much of the 'internal' is genetically derived information.
As synthetic neural networks seem to require regulatory or control equations to maintain stability, it may be difficult to attain complete cognitive freedom, synthetically.
The philosophical implications, of synthetic cognition systems and their implicit methodologies and assumptions, are most interesting. Cognitive research is wonderfully fruitful, as a source and 'spark' of new concepts.
A truth is a perception which we believe to be valid, reliable or useful. There are rational truths, societal truths, pragmatic truths, and intuitive truths.
That, which we perceive as external environment, is the externalised Absolute. As the Absolute is an integrated whole, so the environment is an integrated whole.
As all propositions are of the Absolute, an integrated whole, we may expect a propositional network to be an integrated whole.
Although a propositional network may be extremely multiparadigmatic, we may expect it to be an integrated whole.
A clean blackboard, or blank canvas, or empty consciousness ... these are voids on which we write or paint or think ... and, as soon as we present a void to ourselves, the functions of creativity impose themselves ... compelled forcefully, it seems, from chaos. As nature abhors a vacuum, so nature also abhors a void of any kind.
One should wring every drop of knowledge from all concepts: Often it is the last drop which yields the richest returns.
Our sensor-neural systems are essentially and naturally reactive, rather than rational and logical. We are reactive and experiential beings, rather than rational and logical beings.
Often our current perceptions are sub-consciously linked to old traumas and we may react suddenly and emotionally, without any rational or logical reason.
We are primarily reactive: We tend to act first and to think afterwards.
Deductive, inductive and syllogistic reasoning, along with fallacy-avoidance, are learned processes, which are not natural and innate.
We tend to be drilled in logical reasoning by teachers, in much the same way as army recruits are drilled in arms by sergeants. We are, so to say, 'knocked into shape', as rational beings, by parents and other mentors.
We link perceptions causatively, and the linkage is often illogical and erroneous.
He or she, who thinks before 'shifting arse', may be left without an arse. There are times when survival requires very quick reactions.
As we, and life, are transfinite, finite logic is often counter-productive: We know this intuitively.
We may well consider rational processes as being an ancillary module, which we may or may not elect to use. We would be unwise to grant it any mandatory or primary status.