5200 - 5399
As upwelling depends on prevailing winds, changes in wind patterns may have a serious effect on related fisheries.
More than 99% of marine productivity comes from less than 10% of the ocean areas. Near Japan, California, Peru, and West Africa, the waters provide some of the world's great fisheries.
The El Chichon (Mexico) eruption, of 1982, disrupted the trade winds and stopped the upwelling of cold waters along the west coasts of the Americas.
Abyssal waters complete their travel in 500-1,000 years ... while surface waters complete their travel in years or, at most, decades. Consequently, deep-water changes take millennia to reach equilibrium, as compared with the much smaller time-span required for the changing and equation of surface waters.
As pre-quaternary weather patterns and ice-age weather patterns were relatively simple and stable, we venture a preliminary deduction that present global weather patterns are peculiar to an inter-glacial period.
It appears that, during an inter-glacial period, polar weather becomes more isolated from the weather of lower latitudes, and entropic randomisation of tropospheric heat energy is reduced.
In late winter and spring, large increases of atmospheric ozone normally occur.
As upsurges of volcanism are the proximate causes of iceages, the de-insolating (cooling) effects of volcanism must dominate over, and pre-empt, the ozone depletion (heating) effects of volcanism.
It is an hypothesis of this network that volcanic chlorine and sulphur dioxide gases are the major cause of ozone depletion, and that CFC's (and other industrial and agricultural chemicals) are of lesser significance.
AS ozone is attacked by volcanism (via chlorine and sulphur emissions), ozone hole have probably occurred in the past, whenever there has been an upsurge of volcanism.
As ice-ages have occurred many times in geological history, and as ice-ages are caused by de-insolating volcanic emissions, it is probable that future upsurges of volcanism will result in future ice-ages ... and it is unlikely that man-released de-ozoning agents will have any significant effect upon the volcanism/ice-age causation sequence. In other words, the man-release of de-ozoning agents will not prevent the occurrence of ice-ages in future.
As the world's climate has been cooling since 1940, and as the onset of an ice-age may occur within a 100-year (or less) period, we may be well advanced in a phase of ice-age re-entry.
As ozone depletion has a heating effect, while the deinsolating veil has a cooling effect, the relative altitudes of the ozone and de-insolating layers, become a matter of interest. The ozone layer lies between 11 and 25 kilometres of altitude, while the de-insolating veil lies between 15 and 30 kilometres of altitude. The deinsolating veil is the higher and predominating layer ... and, during periods of increased volcanism, the stratospheric cooling effect predominates over the stratospheric heating effect. (Note: We recall that prop. 2725 notes that a reduction in solar radiation of 20% requires only 1/1600 of a cubic mile of very fine dust in atmosphere ... and such dust may reach into the upper stratosphere, above the ozone layer).
During the Earth's emergence from the last ice-age (which ended about 10,000 years ago), it experienced huge fluctuations of temperature and precipitation. Greenland ice-core analyses indicate that these shifts happened within a few years. The analyses also indicate that, during the Eemean interglacial period (115,000-135,000 years ago), average temperature shifted by 10 degrees C (or more) within 10 years or so. When these research findings are considered in conjunction with volcanism/ice-age correlations, we cannot rule out the possibility that an upsurge of volcanism may bring about a rapid return of ice-age conditions.
Cotton prices rose by 57% from November 1993 - April 1994: At April 1994, they are at 85US¢ per pound ... the highest price for three years. Disease and pest damage reduced output, in China and Pakistan, by one-third in two years. Domestic prices in India have doubled (May 1993 - April 1994) ... and India has now banned exports of cotton.
It has been estimated that rice production will need to increase by at least 50% (1994-2020) to keep pace with increasing demand, due to increasing population.
In the past 15 years, the level of the Caspian Sea has risen by 2.1 metres, and continues to rise at 15 cms per annum.
One calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree C (from 14.5C to 15.5C). The food calorie is 1,000 times as large as the heat calorie.
The greatest inter-latitude heat flux is in the latitude range 30-40 degrees. Heat, moving from low to high latitudes, must pass through the mid-latitudes, creating air movements, including high-speed winds and stormy weather.
Most water evaporation takes place over the sub-tropical oceans ... and the relative latent heat moves both equator-wards and pole-wards.
As water's molecular mass is 18, as compared with lower atmosphere average gas molecular mass of 29, humid air masses are lighter than dry air masses, at identical temperatures.
The Earth intercepts solar energy equivalent to 300,000 times the electrical generating capacity of USA. (Note: This is one half of one billionth of the total solar energy output.)
It is important to note that only 25% of the solar energy absorbed by the atmosphere comes directly from above: The major portion of 75% comes from below. If these percentages were perchance reversed, the atmosphere would be stable and the weather would be non-turbulent.
The atmosphere is not as transparent to long waves as to short waves and, consequently, it acts as a reservoir of heat. Atmospheric insulation causes the Earth's surface to be about 40 degrees C warmer than it would be without such insulation.
The lower boundary of the stratosphere varies from 17 kms height at the equator to 9 kms near the poles. This raises the question as to what height volcanic emissions must reach in order to enhance the stratospheric deinsolating layer (or veil). Winds may carry emissions from low to high latitudes.
Vertical transfers of constituent materials and aerosols of the stratosphere, are very slow: The dispersal/removal of fine dust and aerosols from the stratosphere may take many years.
A vector may be a line of force; a time flow; a direction; a navigational fix; a paradigm or viewpoint; an assessment or estimate.
A vector may, at one extreme, be precisely measurable and, at the other extreme, a vague prehension.
Whether precise or imprecise, all vectors are 'feelers in the void'.
Every action/happening is a propulsion into future, which retro-effects its past ... like a jet.
Every positive action/happening 'jets' against its negative.
All negative-positive dichotomies are subset manifestations of the infinite mainset.
A positron is a positive electron ... that is, the antiparticle twin of the electron.
Antiparticles are 'ordinary' particles which follow reversed paths.
We create our own puzzles and mysteries, and our unknowns (so that we may learn by discovery). We create our universes, and our puzzles and mysteries are subordinate to their creation.
From time to time, there will be more fashionable models and more useful models of the universe ... but there cannot be a finally correct model of the finite/infinite universe.
To speak of a Newton, Einstein, Heisenberg, Dirac, Bohr (etc) universe is similar to speaking of a Plato, Descartes, Kant, Leibniz, Hegel (etc) universe. In all these, we are speaking of different world-views or philosophies. Generally, theoretical physicists are also philosophers.
An electromagnetic field may be perceived as the physicist's 'blank canvas'.
All sub-atomic particles are transfinite ... that is, they are both finite and infinite. It is we humans who perceptually create their finity.
The motion of liquid helium (at close to absolute zero temperatures) is frictionless. This phenomenon is known as superfluidity.
Superfluid helium, in a beaker, moves spontaneously up and over the beaker walls, and appears to be indifferent to gravity.
Superfluid helium flows through any crevice or hole, no matter how small.
Superfluid helium has no viscosity: No amount of freezing will cause it to become viscous.
Superfluid helium is a superconductor: It offers no resistance whatsoever to the flow of electricity.
Once a superfluid is set in motion, its flow will continue indefinitely.
No friction slows electrons: It is only when atoms are crowded together that friction occurs.
Atomic motion never ceases.
All mass is interaction.
Each piece (however small) of the fabric of existence, reveals the design, organisation and texture of the whole.
There appears to be an inescapable duality at the essence of all things.
Physicists, of nucleonics, now tend to renounce descriptions of phenomena based on the concept of cause and effect.
Einstein demonstrated that we may create universes just by writing down an equation. The implicit question here is whether the relativistic universe is a different universe from the pre-Einstein universe we used to perceive: The writer believes that it is ... and that we humans create the universes we live in.
A scientific theory may be judged simply on its usefulness ... that is, on its instrumentality. It is pointless to argue whether it is true or false, for the terms true and false are imprecise non-instrumentally.
Successful scientific theories enable us to predict the outcome of experiments.
Some theoretical physicists speak like godless prophets.
In physics, all action appears to minimise the expenditure of energy. The universe appears to be economical, simple and elegantly graceful.
If 'it' tallies with experience, and if 'it' works, we may say that 'it' is true. To most of us, truth and falsity are concepts which have practical value and practical value only.
Theoretical physicists conceive visualisation as being more restrictive than abstraction. Creations of the mind are not limited to visual imagery.
In quantum mechanics, position and momentum cannot be precisely specified simultaneously.
The simplest compound nucleus is the deuteron ... a single proton, bound to a single neutron.
Time appears to run forward for a nuclear particle and backward for an antiparticle.
Kinetic energy is non-vectored it has magnitude but no direction.
The electrostatic force of an atom's nucleus is that of its surrounding electron charge.
Atomic valencies and bonds are a function of the electron charges involved.
It has been said that there is no law except the law that there is no law. It may also be said that all laws are man made.
In quantum theory, an electron's energy decreases as its radius increases (in quantum shifts).
The writer finds, in his propositional development work, that the ratio of self-generated propositions to introduced propositions is consistently three to one. This ratio is the propositional multiplier.
Physicists' concepts of sub-atomic particles and fields of force are inventions of the mind, which may not otherwise exist.
The four-dimensional space-time manifold purports to represent all aspects of existence and universality.
Relativity puts all non-relative concepts into question.
An accelerating electron transfers energy by emitting radiation.
As energy only radiates when there is both a source of radiation and an absorber or receiver of radiation, the question arises as to whether perception may be a catalyst in the radiation process. Without perceivers of light, perhaps there could be no light.
Sub-atomic phenomena are symmetrical with respect to interchange of past and future.
While, subatomically, systems are reversible, macrocosmically they are irreversible.
A tendency towards disorder is the most universal manifestation of time's arrow.
Past-future symmetry is integral with source-absorber symmetry.
An electron is transfinite: All electrons are one. To perceive of many electrons is to perceive the finite aspect of something transfinite.
All electrons have the same mass and the same charge because they are all one and the same transfinitely.
It is possible that 'the present' belongs to our minds alone ... and that the flow of time is an illusion.
Existence is the integral of all action probabilities.
The nuclear advent of 1945 made the human race extremely powerful and extremely vulnerable. Those who control power become power ... and power has no particular need of bodies.
Energy is expended to gain precision ... and thus precision entails entropic action. The pursuit of greater precision requires greater and greater expenditures of energy.
Inertia is an essential of mass ... and diffusion is motion without inertia.
When experiments conflict with existing theories, progress may ensue.
The image of electrons orbiting a nucleus is now perceived as simplistic and even misleading.
Familiar visual analogies are now perceived to be unhelpful by many theoretical physicists.
Most theoretical physicists perceive their models as being only provisional representations of what is or may be.
It appears that an electron may go in any direction and may go forward or backward in time ... and electrons seem to be aware.
Are electrons aware or are their observers aware or are both electrons and their observers aware?
The principle of least action is integral with and inseparable from the principle of least time.
A gamma ray can spontaneously produce an electron and a positron, as a pair.
A positron is a time-reversed electron.
In sub-atomic phenomena there is no distinction between past and future. Such phenomena are transfinite.
A photon's anti-particle is of itself, and is not separate from itself.
There is no evidence that a photon is emitted in one place and absorbed in another. It may appear to be so, but there is no scientific evidence that it is so.
An emitter of light and a receiver of light are integrally related and may be regarded as one.
There is no reality other than the appearance of reality.
Light-speed is apparent speed and light is apparent.
Because light is apparent, its speed appears to be constant under all conditions and from all points of view.
The 1993 world stock of weapons-grade plutonium is estimated at 250 tonnes, and the world stock of weapons-grade uranium is estimated at 1,500 tonnes: 5KG of the former, or 15KG of the latter, is needed to make a nuclear bomb.
The world stock of weapons-grade plutonium and uranium is widely dispersed, and approximately half of it is within the former USSR. The control factor is weakening month by month.
In 1960, 100KG of highly enriched uranium went missing from a Pennsylvanian factory.
There is no effective control, from Moscow or elsewhere, over the nuclear resources of the former USSR.
Uranium can be used as fuel in power-generating reactors, but the value of plutonium as a fuel is limited. Plutonium is hard to get rid of.
Hydrogen bombs use a fission reaction to start a more powerful fusion reaction. Energy from the first blast heats and compresses a mixture of lithium (a light metal) and deuterium (heavy hydrogen), wrapped around a piece of uranium. Neutrons from the uranium split the lithium into helium and tritium, an even heavier hydrogen. The tritium and deuterium then fuse, producing helium and another spare neutron. The first fusion bomb ('Mike') exploded with the force of 10 million tonnes of TNT. This was ten times the yield of the biggest ever fission bomb.
In the 1960's, the USSR produced a 150 megatonne bomb (ten thousand times more powerful than the Hiroshima bomb). Bombs ten times larger than the afore-mentioned USSR bomb have been planned. 'Mike' (see 5305) was the size of a railway truck but now H-bombs go into aeroplane bomb-bays. Now they are made small enough to sit on top of a missile.
Intercontinental missile H-bombs have made possible a war in which anything on Earth could be destroyed within minutes.
At its peak, the US arsenal contained more than 30,000 nuclear weapons. The most modern missiles are accurate to within 100 metres. The arsenals are now shrinking ... and concern now focuses on the few bombs which small countries may make or control.
There is an enormous artesian basin, in Russian Asia, which stretches from the Urals in the west, to the Sayany mountains in the south-east, to the Kazakhstan steppes in the south, and almost to the Arctic Circle in the north. A layer of sedimentary rock, 2 kms thick, separates this hot subterranean sea from the surface. The sea itself (larger than the Mediterranean) saturates porous rocks and sandstone, and fills a huge depression in the Earth, never less than 6.5 kms in depth. The temperature of the water is 40-60 degrees C, at the upper levels, and as high as 160 degrees C, at the deepest levels.
The earthquake, moot costly in terms of lives lost, was in the Shansi province of China in 1556: 830,000 people were killed. Another catastrophic earthquake occurred in the Tangshan province of China in 1976: In this, 650,000 people were killed, Of the nine earthquakes which have killed more than 100,000 people, six have occurred in China, two in Japan, and one in India. China is susceptible to earthquakes associated with incipient rifting: The Asian land-mass is overdue for radial rifting. When a segment of a spherical shell is forced to adjust to a sphere of larger radius, radial cracks and gores must develop. This is the van Hilten (1963) 'orange-peel' effect. Here, we visualise the Asian land-mass as a spherical shell segment which is being forced by gravity to adjust to the larger expanding sphere of Earth. Large earthquakes are anticipated in China in the near future.
Whenever material is added to the surface of the Earth (by icing, volcanic emissions or sedimentation), the crust sinks, and whenever material is removed from the surface, the crust rises. Parts of the Scandinavian and Finnish shores have risen by as much as 800 feet, over the past 9,000 years, as the result of de-icing.
It is only in the high latitudes that the stratosphere is cold enough for ice particles to form, making conditions right for the transformation of ozone into oxygen. Consequently, it is only in the high latitudes that holes may develop in the ozone layer.
During the 19601s, Edward Lorenz of MIT produced a simple chaos theory model of atmospheric convection processes which purported to demonstrate that the behaviour of weather was unpredictable. It also purported to demonstrate that the weather will follow broadly similar patterns, which define the climate, but that the weather will never return to the same state. Lorenz also demonstrated that weather systems may possibly flip unpredictably from one randomly stable state to another randomly stable state. Lorenz's work concerned the mathematics of randomicity, and was not concerned with attribution of specific causes or outcomes of specific causes.
Annual heatflow to the Earth's surface equates an energy release which is 1,000 times greater than the annual energy release associated with earthquakes.
The equal-gravity surface of the Earth, or geoid, differs from sea-level by as much as 100 metres. As variations do not correlate with the distribution and configuration of continents and ocean basins, they probably relate to gravitational differences in the mantle.
People close to coasts need not fear for rising sea-levels: From 1995, global sea-levels will fall gradually.
It has been estimated that 20,000 years ago ice covered about 27% of the Earth's land surface, compared with about 10% at the present time.
The warmer upper layers of ocean waters (down to approx. 200 metres) are less dense than the colder underlying waters, and deep waters tend to stay deep. However, winds may move surface waters, so as to permit the upwelling of cold, deep waters.
The tropical trade winds and the temperate westerlies serve to push coastal surface waters offshore, resulting in the upwelling of cold abyssal waters, such as the Peruvian, Benguelan and Oyashio currents. Any abatement of the tropical trade winds and temperate westerlies will result in abatement of upwellings of abyssal waters.
Apart from the wind factor, ocean currents are driven by differences in the density of sea-water. These density differences are due to varying degrees of temperature and salinity.
The lower the temperature of sea-water, the greater its density. Sea-water is densest at freezing point.
Sea-waters of greater salinity are denser and they sink to form bottom water. Greater salinity may be caused by evaporation or icing.
The circulation of bottom waters is greater when water temperature differentials are greater.
The 80% reduction of bottom-water formation in the Greenland Sea, during the 1980's, has reduced ocean heat exchange and lessened the amelioration of Arctic water temperatures ... thus hastening the return of global ice-age climate.
Water temperature differentials may be changing due to: (A) The warming of the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (due to sulphur-volcanism), causing greater north-south/south-north wind flows, rather than east-west/west-east wind flows. (B) The warming of high-latitude surface waters, due to polar ozone depletion.
Glacial conditions, once initiated, tend to be self-perpetuating.
Signs, which may be indicative of ice-age re-entry, include:
- (a) A reduction of mean global air and sea temperatures.
- (b) Extension of existing glaciers and ice-fields.
- (c) Increased snowfalls, hail and frost.
- (d) Greater flows of spring-thaw waters.
- (e) Greater volumes of lake and river waters.
- (f) Greater incidence of icebergs in lower latitudes.
- (g) Extension of permafrost areas to lower latitudes.
- (h) A general increase of groundwaters.
- (i) An increase of mudflows and solifluxion.
- (j) A retreat of tree-lines to lower altitudes.
- (k) A gradual lowering of sea-levels.
- (1) A reduction of bottom-water formation.
- (m) Lower grain harvests in the cold temperate zones.
- (n) The shifting of animal habitats to lower latitudes.
Although there is an enormous quantity and range of data available, there is still much confusion as to the what, why and wherefore of existence. Why is this so? See 5368.
Pollutant aerosols (above 3.3 kms altitude) are 3 or 4 times more concentrated in the Arctic than in the Antarctic, in winter.
The most important variations in sea-ice mass are in the southern high latitudes ... that is, from a global climate point of view ... but changes of northern sea-ice mass are also significant.
Although there is some heat exchange between Arctic and Atlantic waters via flows over the Barents shelf and east of Greenland, these heat exchanges are not major. The Arctic is like an isolated, self-sustaining refrigerator.
Approximately 90% of thermal energy transfer from low to high latitudes is via warmed ocean waters: Most of the remaining 10% is transferred via the atmosphere.
The atmosphere moves its energy from place to place at least 100 times faster than ocean currents move their energy ... but the ocean currents move about 10 times as much total energy as the atmosphere.
When there is a reduction of solar heat reaching high latitudes (resulting in more ice and snow) a positive feedback mechanism comes into play (via increased surface albedo) which further decreases polar temperatures. This self-feed mechanism is probably a major factor in the onset and prolongation of ice-age conditions.
Deinsolating sulphurous aerosols, aqueous aerosols and fine ash volcanic emissions, at stratospheric-veil level. Are probably the historical trigger of ice-ages.
In this present era, industrial sulphur pollutants (although mainly at tropospheric altitudes) may add to the sulphur-aerosol presence in the stratospheric veil.
Over the last 100 years, fluctuations of high-latitude average temperatures have been rapid and of greater magnitude than temperature changes in middle and low latitudes.
There are indications of a continuing and systematic transfer of chlorinated hydrocarbon air pollutants from warmer to colder regions.
In New England, mean temperatures were 3 degrees C below the norm in 1836 and 1837, following the Cosequina eruption.
It is noteworthy that a small but distinct temperature fall in the 1960's and 1970's occurred despite increasing carbon dioxide concentrations.
The 1690's decade was the coldest on record in western European history. Volcanic eruptions, of Rekla (Iceland, 1693), Serua (Indonesia, 1693), and Aboina (Indonesia, 1694) produced recognisable frost rings in trees in North America. The weather in Europe in 1695 was outstandingly severe: Crops failed and lowland rivers flooded heavily.
Cold winters are more effective than cool summers in restricting grass growth. Very hard frosts in late winter kill the grass. Prolonged snow cover, especially if there is melting and refreezing, is particularly harmful. When a thaw leaves water lying in frozen soil, the grass is killed outright.
Based on the records of 1200 AD - 1700 AD (the 'little ice age'), we may expect the following effects of renewed global cooling:
- Some semi-desert areas may become drier. Mountain areas of south-west USA may become cooler and wetter.
- Rainfall may increase markedly on desert fringes (such as those of north-west India, Iraq, Egypt and Pakistan).
- Parts of northern Europe and the north-west USA may experience colder winters and heavier snowfalls.
- Glaciers may advance globally.
- There may be poor summers and harvest failures in the middle latitudes. Agriculture, horticulture and viticulture in these latitudes may all be adversely affected.
- Large numbers of people may emigrate south from countries such as Norway, Sweden, Finland, Canada, northern Russia, Alaska, Scotland, Iceland, Estonia, Latvia and northern Japan.
- Sea temperatures may fall and large increased concentrations of pack-ice may form in the high-latitude seas and drift-ice may reach to lower and lower latitudes.
- The occurrence of summer heat and droughts may increase and, also, there may be a greater incidence of wet summer weather.
- Mild winters may occur episodically during a series of cold winters.
- There may be a shift to lower latitudes of cold depression fronts.
- Winters may be colder, with more snow, hail and ice.
- Warm ocean currents, such as the Gulf Stream, may become less powerful, and their warming effects may decrease.
- The isotherms of sea surface waters may shift to lower latitudes.
- There may be a general reduction of the amount of solar energy reaching the Earth's surface, leading to a weakening of atmospheric circulation.
If a significant number and combination of 'little ice age' effects occur in our time, we may conclude that global cooling is taking place.
Global mean air temperature has dropped from 22 degrees C to 14 degrees C during the past 37 million years.
As we are living in an interglacial interval within an ice-age, overall climatic conditions probably pre-dispose to ice-age re-entry ... and renewed glaciation may probably be easily triggered.
The high-standing continents have risen by an average 2,000 feet over the past 10-15 million years.
In the stratosphere, there seems to be a slow pole-ward drift of mass and, thus, the stratospheric veil may be very persistent over polar regions ... leading to greater icing.
As we return to ice-age conditions, we may anticipate a gradual lowering of sea-levels.
As a rule of thumb, when thick ice-sheets rest upon a land surface, the Earth's crust is depressed by about one-third of the thickness of the ice-sheets.
It takes perhaps 20,000 years for the Earth's crust to completely adjust isostatically, following the removal of a thick ice load.
Another 450 feet height of land recovery is still to be achieved around Hudson Bay ... and 600 feet around the Gulf of Bothnia.
Isostatic sinking is taking place in southern Denmark, the Netherlands coast, the North Sea Basin, and southern England.
Traces of ancient glaciation have been discovered in forested areas of Brazil, and in the central Sahara desert.
Some climatologists consider that atmospheric dust has a greater cooling effect than the warming effect of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. (Note: The reference here is to tropospheric dust and not to dust of the stratospheric veil).
Changes of mean air temperature of less than one degree C may or may not relate to human interference with the environment.
There is no evidence that mankind is able to trigger a re-entry to, or exit from, ice-age conditions.
In the northern hemisphere, during winter, about half of the land surface becomes covered with snow or ice, and about one third of the ocean areas are covered by floating ice.
A decrease of three to four degrees C, in global mean air temperature, would start the formation of new ice sheets and initiate a self-sustaining cooling system, leading to ice-age re-entry. Of course, such a lowering of global temperature would probably, in itself, indicate that ice-age re-entry had commenced.
The ice-age is still with us now, and we would be naive to think otherwise, 'Greenhouse' and ozone depletion notwithstanding.
As ozone depletion is greatest at low-insolation high latitudes and smallest at high-insolation low latitudes, it has much less effect on global temperatures than the stratospheric veil, which deinsolates at all latitudes.
Until we have all relevant data, we cannot make predictions with 100% certainty. As data collection is endless, we cannot make predictions with 100% certainty.
Scientific minds self-programme with the proposition ... 'we haven't got all the data'. Sub-con5CiOUSly, this is equated 1:1 to ... 'we haven't got enough data'. Consequently, scientific minds tend to avoid categorical evaluations and categorical predictions.
Survivalist motivations urge us to make the best predictions we can, on the data at our disposal. We may assign probability indices to various future scenarios but many scientists are reluctant to do this.
We are now able to predict many outcomes, one year ahead, with 90% accuracy. Restated, we now have data which enables us to predict many outcomes, one year ahead, with 90% accuracy.
For the past 12,000 years, the biosphere's mean air temperature has been in unstable equilibrium at about 14 degrees C. Over the past 70,000 years, mean temperature has been lower than 14 degrees C for 91% of the time. Variations of mean temperature relate to variations of the quantities of aerosols (sulphurous and aqueous) and fine dust delivered to the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions, The drop of mean temperature, from 23 degrees C (80 million years ago) to low quaternary ice-age levels, has been due to increased volcanism (resulting from the Jurassic core explosion). The period of related volcanic quiescence, of the past 12,000 years, has come to an end. Recent eruptions (notably Pinatubo 1991) have significantly enhanced the deinsolation capacities of the stratospheric veil, and have triggered a rapid decrease of the global mean air temperature. The Earth's interglacial episode has ended, and the biosphere is returning quickly to ice-age conditions.
None of the entities that appear in modern nuclear theory are accessible to the senses.
It is now recognised that alternative theories may relate validly to the same empirical observations: This is known as empirical equivalence.
Empirically equivalent theories may have different implications and consequences.
Society may now ask whether knowledge is becoming the prerogative of a scientific oligarchy.
The question has often been posed as to whether the creative powers of scientists are adequate to their destructive powers.
When quarks are close together, the force between them is small but, when they are drawn apart, the force between them becomes very strong. The force between quarks increases as to the square of the distance between them. The forces of gravity and magnetism decrease with distance but the reverse is the case with quarks.
The mathematician Kurt Godel produced a proof that no logical system can ever be consistent and complete.
The test of any science is its ability to predict.
As of June 1994, we note matters relevant to increased volcanism, as follows:
- (a) The heat, from the 180mya core explosion, is coming closer to the surface. It has caused the quaternary volcanism, the quaternary ice-ages, and the present upsurge of volcanism.
- (b) Volcanic emissions (of ash, sulphur and chlorine) reinforce and strengthen the stratospheric de-insolating veil, causing biosphere cooling and the onset of a mini ice-age.
- (c) The current upsurge of volcanism is characterised by an increase in the number and magnitude of surface volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and increased volcanism at under-ocean construction ridges.
- (d) ocean waters, of mid to high latitudes, are cooling as mini ice-age conditions begin to prevail.
- (e) The stratospheric de-insolation layer is at a higher altitude than the Greenhouse layer ... and thus the the atmospheric cooling effect predominates over the warming effect. The stratospheric veil prevents a significant amount of solar heat from penetrating through to the lower Greenhouse layer.
- (f) Where E-W winds have, in the past, caused a movement of surface waters westwards and an upwelling of deep cold ocean waters to take their place (as in the Pacific, off the Peruvian coast), the abatement of E-W wind-flows now reduces or negates such water flows, and El Niño weather patterns come into effect. Contrary to some notions, El Niño is associated not with warming of the biosphere but with cooling of the biosphere.
- (g) The cooling of the Earth's biosphere is directly associated with the heating up of the Earth's interior. Certainly, we have global heating, but we undergo a mini ice-age in the process.
- (h) Ozone depletion takes place mainly at high latitudes, for cold atmospheric conditions are a prerequisite of the chemical breakdown of ozone by chlorine and sulphur. Ozone depletion is mainly due to volcanic emissions of chlorine and sulphur and, to a lesser extent, by CFC's. The ozone depletion causation of reduced disease resistance (due to increased UV) will be most marked in high-latitude countries.
As of June 1994, we note expected consequences of the onset of mini ice-age conditions, as follows:
- (a) N-S airflows will increase in the southern hemisphere, and S-N airflows will increase in the northern hemisphere.
- (b) Cold low-pressure fronts will reach further into lower latitudes, from Arctic and Antarctic regions.
- (c) The E-W low-latitude winds will decrease and the W-E mid-latitude winds will also decrease.
- (d) The El Niño weather pattern will become a permanent feature.
- (e) Humid tropical air will be carried to higher latitudes by N-S/S-N air movements. These humid airflows will meet advancing cold fronts from higher latitudes, bringing more rain to the 40-60 degree mid-latitudes.
- (f) Changes of climate and of weather patterns will be greatest in the 40-60 degree latitudes ... and the weather there will become more changeable, with more frosts and hail, and more snow in the high country.
- (g) With increased rainfall and snowfall in most regions of the 40-60 degree latitudes, there will be greater flooding and a build-up of ground waters. Lakes will increase in size and new lakes will form.
- (h) There will be a build-up of surface ice in the high latitudes and in high country generally.
- (i) Global sea-levels will fall, as surface ice and ground waters increase significantly.
- (j) Many crops will fail, leading to a world food shortage.
- (k) Actions which societies could take, to abate air pollution, would have very little effect, compared with the forces of nature.
As core-explosion heat closes on the surface, convective movements of lithospheric matter will increase ... and land volcanism will increase.
The longer a locality has suffered drought, the greater the probability that it will suffer more drought.
The blood and blood vessels take up about 5% of the volume of the human body.
In human tissue, no cell is ever more than four cells away from a blood vessel.
The human anatomy is so designed as to accommodate the greatest surface area into the smallest volume. Anatomically, space is at a premium.
The fractal approach to anatomy perceives of the whole structure in terms of branching.
The new discipline of 'chaos' is the science and mathematics of nascent order ... and it includes the study of phenomena at the threshold of singularity.
The transformations which give rise to fractal shapes are analogous to the coded instructions of an organism's genes. Human anatomical geometry is genetically engineered.
Genetic engineering is survivalist ... and our fractal geometry has evolved survivally from the random energy of chaos.
DNA programming is characterised by repetitive bifurcation. This bifurcation is probably imposed by our species upon a background of random energy.
The classical example of fractal scaling is the Koch curve ... that is, of a triangle, which is added to in positive Cantor set progression (by progressive addition of a middle third). This device is very useful in a wide range of computer simulations.
The term 'fractal' has come to refer to a way of perceiving and handling shapes which are irregular, fragmented and jagged ... whether crystalline or organic ... for the fractal curve is found to be a basic organising structure which is often hidden under a multiplicity of other shapes.
Instrumentally, fractal geometry is used by many professions, including mathematicians, physicists, chemists, seismologists, metallurgists, physiologists, biologists, probability theorists, and others.
Fractal scaling (up and down, according to volume constraints) is universal in morphogenics.
When fractal sets are computerised graphically, to smaller and smaller scales, they reveal shapes reminiscent of early marine evolution: There appear to be fractal associations to the evolutionary species memory.
Chaos phenomena (such as fractal geometry, self similarity, sensitivity to initial conditions, the regularity of irregularity, attractors, and Cantor dust sets) are evidences of evolutionary progression: They are 'footprints' which remind us what we are, and help us to create what we are.
The sciences of nuclear physics and chaos operate at an interface (of perception and singularity) where phenomena may be regarded as independent of the scientists, or as creations of the scientists: The difference becomes a matter of viewpoint ... and viewpoint becomes reality.
All background energy is randomly dispersed but our biological reading of this energy is gene-programmed for intermittence and patterning. It is the nature of our species to perceive geometrically: That which is random, we perceive as geometric shapes and flows.
The self-similarity, of the perceived patterns of chaos, derive from the common gene-programming of our species. As a species, we are survivally disposed to interpret in terms of these patterns.
Our species has evolved from chaos. The energy of chaos is the egg-meat of our species. As we evolved, we fashioned the random energy of chaos according to our needs.
Our intuitions are subject to training and adaptation. Our intuitions are of our genetic programming, and we may learn to change and adapt these programmes.
All energy flows and phenomena tend to pair; all qualities pair off; every thing tends to pair. We have positive and negative polarities, paired nuclear particles, high and low pressure wind systems, light and dark, male and female, the chaos butterfly effect, good and bad ... and right and wrong. Either the universe naturally expresses in terms of pairings, or our species naturally perceives it so.
Gaps or spaces, between data, may be data gestation periods. Data may have quasi-life characteristics.