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Network Propositions
5100 - 5199


5100
At the close of the last ice age (which lasted about 100,000 years and ended about 12,000 years ago), the Earth experienced huge fluctuations of temperature and of snowfalls. These shifts, which far exceeded any fluctuations in recorded history, occurred relatively suddenly ... that is, within a decade or so. According to Greenland ice-core analyses, there were three markedly different climatic regimes during the Eemian interglacial period of 115,000-135,000 years ago. One of these regimes was much colder than present, one similar to the present, and one much warmer. It is noteworthy that shifts of average world temperature of 10C or more took place within a decade or so and then remained constant for 70 to 5,000 years.


5101
The temperature fluctuations recorded in the Greenland ice cores are about twice those of average global variations. In other words, a 10C variation in polar temperature is roughly equivalent to a 5C variation in average global air temperature.


5102
In the past 500 years, in north-west Europe, the decadal average air temperature has varied by no more than 1C. The coldest years (such as 1695, 1740 and 1816) were between 2C and 3C below long-term average ... and these coldest years brought food-shortage crises to much of Europe. The warmest years (1949 and 1990) were little more than 1C above average.


5103
Climatic changes may be unpredictable, large and sudden ... and may not necessarily always be warming.


5104
The climatic stability, of the civilisation period (8,OOOBC-2,OOOAD), may have been exceptional, and may not continue. The human race may risk changes of up to 5C in mean global air temperature within 10-15 years.


5105
Much of the world's deep ocean water originates in the North Atlantic. When the volume of 'new' bottom water decreases, it reduces the amount of warm water flowing up towards Iceland ... and this may lead to the formation of more winter pack-ice and may trigger a rapid cooling (which may be self-sustaining).


5106
During the 19801s, the amount of bottom water formed in the Greenland Sea appears to have declined by about 80%.


5107
The unstable behaviour of the climate, during the rapid warming at the end of the last ice age, can be attributed partly to the collapse of the vast ice sheets which covered much of northern North America and northern Europe. Studies around the globe show the same general features. Isotope ratios from the Antarctic ice sheet, deep ocean sediments, and European lakes produce the same picture, with the big changes occurring at precisely the same time.


5108
Each antarctic summer, algae photosynthise and multiply. The plankton bloom feeds the krill. Russian, Japanese and Polish ships are harvesting about 80,000-100,000 tonnes of krill annually (approximately three times the weight of the fish catch). Annual krill catches of up to 70 million tonnes (equal to the world's fish catch, in total) could be sustainable. Seals, whales and birds consume several hundred million tonnes of krill each year.


5109
Active volcanoes have been detected underneath the West Antarctic ice-sheet, near the head of ice-streams. The volcanoes lie about 500 kilometres inland.


5110
The upsurge of volcanism (2 million years ago to the present) indicates that 180mya core explosion effects are now reaching close to the surface. We can expect volcanism to increase from now on ... particularly at the Pacific rim, from 15S to 5ON latitudes.


5111
The Mariana Trench blow-out (of 180mya) opened up a seaway between the south Asia coast and India. The Mariana Trench was the greatest blow-out zone of the 180mya core explosion. The associated oceanic construction ridge fed out and spread fanwise eastwards, creating the early Indian ocean floor and then the Pacific Ocean floor. The core explosion caused the Earth's volume to expand, and vast areas of new ocean floor were created. Most of the Pacific ocean crust has issued from the rapidly growing construction ridge which had its origin in the Mariana Trench blow-out of 180mya.


5112
The Tongan and Kermadec Trenches marked the 180mya separation of the eastern coasts, of Australia and Antarctica, from the western coast of North America (see prop. 924).


5113
Before the 180mya core explosion, the coasts of southwestern Europe were adjacent to the west African coast ... and Gibralta was adjacent to Cape Palmas. The 180mya blow-out caused these coasts to separate, and a seaway was opened up, and southern Europe moved 1,500 miles east relative to the African coasts (see propositions 921, 925 and 928).


5114
As previously noted (ref. 900 series), the core explosion of 180mya caused the all-land Pangean crust to split into two major assemblies ... the northern (Euro-Asia, North America and Greenland) and the southern (Africa, Arabia, India, South America, Antarctica and Australia). The northern assembly was 23.4 million square miles in area, and the southern was 28.6 million square miles. The old Pangean crust was split into two halves, and a continuous seaway opened up between the two assemblies.


5115
The centre of the 180mya surface blow-out was the Marianas Trench, situated then between Northern India and the Euro-Asian continent. The Marianas blow-out developed into the Pacific construction ridge. The point made now is that the 180mya blow-out caused huge fissures to open up along the line of separation of the northern and southern assemblies. The Philippines, Marianas, Bonin, Izu, Japan, Kuril, Aleutian, Tongan and Kermadec deeptrenches formed one continuous crack-line, at the 180mya blow-out. Only the Marianas section became a major construction system.


5116
At the 180mya blow-out, the Philippines Trench opened up along the Somali Peninsula and the margin of South Arabia; the Marianas Trench continued across northern India; the Bonin-Izu-Japan-Kuril-Aleutian trenches continued from northern India around the north-west, northern and north-east coasts of Australia ... and the TonganKermadec Trenches continued down the east coast of Australia and the then adjacent coast of Antarctica. This crack-line divided India and Australia, on the south, from Euro-Asia on the north ... and western North America from Australia and Antarctica.


5117
The development of the ocean floors has greatly changed the relative positioning of the deep-trenches. The Tongan-Kermadec Trenches are now separated from the Kuril Trench by 4,500 miles of ocean floors. None of these floors existed 180mya. The Tongan-Kermadec Trenches remained adjacent to Australia and Antarctica until Australia moved north and away from Antarctic, about 45mya.


5118
The relative positioning of the deep-trench Philippines to Kuril line has changed dramatically in relation to the Asian coast. The south Asian coast has moved 1,500 miles east relative to north Africa since 180mya (ref. The 900 series) ... and the Indian Ocean has opened up, and also the South China and Philippine Seas. Further, the inertial drag, of Euro-Asia, has caused the Pacific Ocean floors to precess the Asian land-mass, moving the southern section of the trench system further away from Asia. The net result of all these factors has been the removal of the Philippines Trench to its present position 4,500 miles east of its 180mya 'birthplace' alongside the Somali and Arabian coasts.


5119
The Mid-Atlantic construction ridge has a rate of divergence of about 5cms p.a., while the East-Pacific ridge has a rate of divergence of about 15cms p.a.


5120
Throughout geological history, at fairly regular intervals of about 100,000 years, the Earth's magnetic field has reversed its polarity. A record of these reversals is preserved in the oceanic crust.


5121
There are volcanic hot spots underneath the growing Pacific plate. The marks which these plumes of hot rock leave on the Pacific plate include strings of volcanic islands, such as the Hawaiian Islands, the Taumoto and Line Islands ... and the Austral, Gilbert and Marshall Islands. As the Pacific plate construction ridge feeds away to the South-East, the active volcanoes of the hot spots are to be found at the South-East end of the volcanic island chains ... notably Kilauea of Hawaii. Towards the northwestern reaches of these island chains, the volcanoes are progressively older and less active.


5122
Deep ocean waters have a temperature of 2-4C.


5123
The average depth of present oceans is 3.8kms, whereas the probable average depth of Cretaceous oceans (80mya) was only 2.5kms.


5124
The average age of ocean floors 80mya was probably about 15my, and the average age of present ocean floors is about 35my.


5125
The present oceans contain about 1,350 million cubic kilometres of water: The oceans of 80mya probably contained about 330 million cubic kilometres of water.


5126
Over the past 10 million years, the oceans and seas have increased by 39 million square kilometres or 148 million cubic kilometres of water ... or, 14.8 cubic kilometres per annum ... or 3.6 cubic miles per annum. Currently, the Earth is outwatering at about 4 cubic miles per annum, mainly at the construction ridges, but also partly by surface volcanic emissions.


5127
U.S. Wind Power (mass.) has built a variable-speed wind turbine, the operating cost of which (4-5¢ per kilowatt-hour) equals that of new fossil-fuel plants. U.S. Wind Power says its new turbines will soon generate 650 megawatts in USA. Wind power supplied 1,000 megawatts to the European Community in 1992 ... and 1,700 to USA in that year. (Note: This information came from a Sept. 1993 news release).


5128
The average depth of water, over the total surface area of the Earth, is 8,750 feet or 2,666 metres.


5129
Water in atmosphere equates 25mm over the whole surface ... and it recycles 40 times annually. Annual average rainfall equates one metre over the whole surface (circa 1990).


5130
Water in atmosphere is one/one hundred thousandth part of Earth's total water. Total water is 340 million cubic miles: Water in atmosphere is 3,400 cubic miles. Total annual rainfall equates 136,000 cubic miles (911,000 cubic kilometres).


5132
Bacteria are the oldest known living organisms ... dating back to around 3.5 billion years ago. Bacteria are primitive compared with human cells. Bacteria are little more than membrane-bound bags of molecules. A human cell is about 1,000 times larger than an average bacterium.


5133
A human cell is composed primarily of protein molecules. Each protein molecule needs an extensive support team of various chemicals. An average human cell has a host of about 25,000 sorts of molecules floating around inside it ... all but a few of which have been made by itself or its ancestors.


5134
Like a brain, a cell is a system for processing information. A cell is a micro-processor. The bio-chemical network within a cell is a machine for shuffling data, as much as it is one for manipulating molecules. Every step it takes is dictated by chemical messages from genes in its DNA, from hormones, and from its chemical memory (substances it has recently made to remind it what to do next).


5135
In an overall scenario of global heating (due to the ongoing 180mya core explosion) we have an increase of volcanism in the present quaternary period. This volcanism results in an increase of the de-insolating stratospheric layer of sulphurous aerosols and dust. Over the past 10,000 years of human development, there has been a lull of volcanism, during which the de-insolation layer has partly dispersed ... resulting in an inter-glacial episode. Now that volcanism is increasing, this episode is coming to an end ... and we may expect colder average global temperatures in future.


5136
As new ocean-crust issues from under-ocean construction ridges, it cools and densifies and sinks deeper into the lithosphere. The depth, to which the ocean-crust sinks, varies as to the square-root of its age. 2my crust is at about 3kms depth; 20my crust is at about 4kms depth; 50my crust is at about 5kms depth.


5137
To show how the Earth has developed over the past 180 million years, the writer has reconstructed four model globes, namely a 'Pangea' globe, of 180mya; a 'Jurassic' globe, of 135mya; a 'Cretaceous' globe, of 80mya; and a 'modern' globe, of 0mya. In the writer's book 'The Exploding Earth' (1991), photographs of these globes have been reproduced, in various perspectives, to illustrate the progressive surface effects of the core-explosion. Readers are recommended to examine these visual presentations, as it is not easy for readers to fully comprehend the 180mya-0mya developments solely from written accounts.


5138
It is noteworthy that Dalziel and Moores (of the University of California, at Davis) have arrived at the same relative positioning of continents in their Paleozoic Antarctic assembly. Dalziel and Moores have based their continental positioning on their researches of the Grenville Belt rock formation. In particular, their researches indicate that, in Paleozoic times, both North and South America were part of the Antarctic assembly, with the east coast of North America lying adjacent to the west coast of South America. (Note: This is mentioned here as many geologists find it hard to accept this old adjacency of the two American continents).


5139
During the Earth's pre-explosion contraction period (4,600mya-180mya), the increasing temperature/pressure of the core-plasma caused lava to rise from mantle to surface through any available lithosphere fissures. The greatest flows occurred during the Triassic and early Jurassic, as core-plasma temperature/pressure was reaching high levels. A major flow occurred in Siberia, where a multi-layered flat-lying lava accumulated to one kilometre depth and covering an area of 1,500,000 square kilometres. Other large flows occurred in southern Africa and elsewhere.


5140
Lava flows are not always accompanied by volcanic emissions to stratospheric height. It is important to note that only those volcanic emissions which reach stratospheric height add to the de-insolation veil and may be a major cause of ice-ages.


5141
Only about 20% of total current volcanic activity occurs on land: The remaining 80% occurring at the ocean-floor construction ridges.


5142
That ice-ages occurred in the Precambrian (700mya), Ordovician (500mya), and Permian (250mya), probably indicates that increasing core-plasma pressure caused land volcanism and de-insolation in those periods.


5143
The lava-flows (p5139) plugged fissures and created the sealed-mantle pre-conditions for the final temperature/ pressure build-up in the core, leading to the 180mya thermo-nuclear explosion.


5144
Most of the matter (mass) in the universe exists in the plasma state.


5145
A plasma is a gas of electrons with an almost charge density of ions ... that is, a highly ionized gas.


5146
Matter at temperature sufficiently high compared to atomic ionisation potentials, at approximately 10,000 degrees Kelvin, forms a plasma ... and this occurs over a broad range of density.


5147
When energy is applied to a solid, the solid becomes a liquid; when energy is applied to a liquid, the liquid becomes a gas; when energy is applied to a gas, the gas becomes a plasma. Plasma may be regarded as a gas or as a fourth state of matter.


5148
Temperature/pressure increases the viscosity of all gases, including plasmas.


5149
The viscosity of a gas arises from the crossing-over of molecules from a fast-moving layer into a neighbouring slower-moving layer, and vice versa. This crossing-over increases as temperature/pressure increases.


5150
The density of a plasma refers to its electron and/or ion density.


5151
As the temperature/pressure of a plasma increases, its density increases. The hydrogen plasma in the centre of the Sun has an estimated temperature of 15 million degrees Kelvin and a density of over 90 grams per cc.


5152
Before the thermonuclear explosion of 180mya, the Earth's inner core consisted, as now, of primitive undifferentiated solar matter, mainly hydrogen. Such an inheritance of radio-active, inner-core material provided the hydrogen isotopes and pre-conditions for a thermonuclear explosion sequence. As contraction of the cooling mantle progressively reduced the volume of the inner-core plasma, the temperature/pressure of the plasma increased (as to the square of the constricting/pinch energy applied), causing a thermonuclear explosion to occur.


5153
The pre-explosion scenario, of 250mya-180mya, is worthy of note. During this 70 million year period, of the Triassic and Jurassic, the Earth's surface was all land ... and this aggregated land mass (known as Pangea) was 52 million square miles in area. Thus, the pre-explosion land area was 5 million square miles less than the present total land area of 57 million square miles. 'New', post-explosion lands include (inter alia) north-eastern Siberia, a large part of south-east Asia, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, East Indies, west coasts of North and South America, Central America, West Indies, Turkey, northern Iraq, and Iran.


5154
The Earth, of 250mya-180mya, had become contracted to a volume of 35 billion cubic miles, as compared with the present 258 billion cubic miles. Earth mass remained constant throughout Earth-history and, in the period before the explosion, surface gravity was high. All of the then land masses had become jammed together, and buckling and lifting had taken place due to the contraction and subsidence of the underlying lithosphere ... causing large fissures to open up, through which most surface waters drained back into the mantle. The Earth's surface was dry and barren, and gravity was high, and approximately 95% of the then flora and fauna died.


5155
The geologically oldest part of New Zealand rifted away from south-east Australia, about 70 million years ago.


5156
There has been very little polar-wander 70mya-0mya.


5157
Crustal additions most commonly issue from construction ridges. Of the 145 million square miles added to the surface since the 180mya explosion, only 5 millions have been by way of additions to land, whereas 140 millions have been by way of ocean-floor extensions. (Note: Six million square miles were added to land, but one sixth was lost to subsidence and inundation).


5158
When we research into the nature of the six million square miles of new lands, referred to in the previous proposition, we find that the lands fall into the following categories:


5159
Since 140mya, the under-ocean construction ridge system has been developing and extending, and became an effective mechanism for the production of new Earth-crust ... that is, until 2mya. At that stage, under-ocean construction ridge activity became frustrated around the Pacific rim, and resulted in a major upsurge of land volcanism, accompanied by ice-ages (consequent upon a build-up of the stratospheric de-insolation layer).


5160
As the Earth continues to expand, and as crustal expansion is being stifled in the vicinity of the west coast of North America, we may expect further uplifting of new coastal lands there in the near future.


5161
Since the explosion, from 180mya until 2mya, the Pacific construction ridges have fed away eastwards, from their Marianas Trench origination area. However, the eastwards momentum appears to be slowing, due to mounting backpressure from frustrated subduction at the western coasts of North America. This back-pressure is causing more subduction and volcanism to take place along the western Pacific rim. Accordingly, we may expect more volcanic activity in future, from the Tongan bastion, in the south, to the Kuril Islands, in the north.


5162
When we consider the Euro-Asian land-mass in relation to the physical implications of Earth expansion, we conclude that further isostatic adjustments must be expected, in areas south of the Orals, in Europe, the Middle East, Myanmar, northern India, and an incipient rift-zone from Afghanistan to Lake Baikal. Earthquakes are anticipated in many of these areas.


5163
The formula for surface gravity is ... g = Gm x radius squared where g is surface gravity, G is the gravitational constant. As the exploding/expanding Earth has increased in radius, surface gravity has been reduced. The pre-explosion Earth radius of 180mya was approximately 2034 miles: Now it is 3,960 miles. In other words, the radius has doubled. As the surface gravity to radius function is a squared relation, surface gravity is now one-quarter of what it was before the explosion.


5164
When the core-explosion took place 180mya there was an initial explosive acceleration effect, similar to the effect of centrifugal force. The impact of this almost lift-off lightening upon life forms was dramatic. The large dinosaurs developed; the first birds flew; lizards and crocodiles evolved. Lower gravity, together with other life-supportive factors (mentioned in proposition 5166), made possible the evolutionary appearance of ammonites, trees, flowering plants, bivalve molluscs, sharks, and turtles ... and corals flourished.


5165
The oxygen-enriched atmosphere, of the post-explosion periods, added greatly to the ozone layer, giving much needed protection against the deadly 240-320 nanometer range of ultra-violet radiation.


5166
Organic life gained six major benefits from the core-explosion, namely:

As a consequence, evolutionary parameters were extended physiologically and anatomically.


5167
Malkus (1963) and Stacey (1967) agree that differences in core/mantle precessional torques are the probable source of the Earth's magnetic field.


5168
It was estimated by Kahle (1969) that the mantle precesses rotationally at a faster rate than the core. Kahle calculated that the core lags behind the mantle at about 10.8 feet per annum. This rate probably fluctuates, as angular momentum is exchanged between mantle and core.


5169
Throughout Earth's pre-explosion contraction period, of 4,600mya-180mya, the core-plasma came under steadily increasing pressure (ref. propositions 903-905). It is noted that plasmas are particularly susceptible to energy applied as a squeeze effect. Increasing pressure, from accretion of the mantle base, would have a squared effect on the temperature/pressure of the core-plasma.


5170
The core-explosion heat, coming closer to the surface, is the cause of increased volcanism over the past two million years ... and its accompanying ice-ages. The episodic pattern of quaternary volcanism and ice-ages, is probably due to convection variations in various parts of the mantle.


5171
As core heat is coming closer to the surface and as the biosphere is becoming increasingly at risk, we may be justified in giving some thought to the identification of likely geographical areas of least risk. We look for areas, sited on maximum crustal depth, which are geologically stable; areas which are free of flood risks; areas which have good access to food and potable water; areas which have a healthy and stable population; and areas which may be adapted to cope with a progressively deteriorating biosphere.


5172
Increased global icing, increased UV risks and increased risks of exposure to man-created nuclear radiation, will lead to the commencement of work on the first underground city development before the year 2000. In view of the enormous costs involved, this will probably in the USA and will be sited with regard to factors referred to in proposition 5171 ... and will probably be built in very stable Precambrian strata.


5173
The south-east Pacific construction ridge marks the original mantle blow-out zone of the 180mya core explosion. Dramatic surface movements have taken place but the mantle blow-out locus has not moved over the past 180 million years ... that is to say, the blow-out locus has not moved within the mantle.


5174
Over the past 180 million years the under-ocean construction ridges have spread globally and now total approximately 33,000 miles in length, as follows:

Pacific ocean ridges c. 11,000 miles
Indian Ocean ridges c. 10,000 miles
Atlantic Ocean ridges c. 10,000 miles
Arctic Ocean ridges c. 2,000 miles
Total c. 33,000 miles


5175
The quantity of Earth's internal heat flowing to the surface is estimated at an average of 60 milliwatts per square metre per second.


5176
Flows of Earth's internal heat to the surface for a few selected areas are noted as follows:

Milliwatts per square metre per second
South-east Pacific construction ridge 110 plus
California 90-100
Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Fiji and Tonga 80-90
Northern half of the North Island of New Zealand 50-60
Other parts of New Zealand 40-50

It is noted that New Zealand heat flows are mainly below the global average of 60 milliwatts per square metre per second.


5177
It is noted that the heat flow from the south-east Pacific construction ridge is probably much higher than the level indicated in proposition 5176. Heat flow measurements record only the heat being conducted through the upper crust, but heat is lost due to the circulation of seawater within the ridge, below the upper crust.


5178
Throughout Earth-history, it has been rare for the poles to be covered with ice but, during the past 2 million years, the poles have been continually iced. The primary cause of this icing has been the greater incidence of volcanic emissions, with their de-insolating effect (via the stratospheric veil).


5179
Available data, on the quaternary ice-ages, shows:


5180
Whereas the present average depth of all oceans is approximately 12,500 feet, during an ice-age, this depth may be reduced by approximately 600 feet or 5%.


5181
Of total waters 331 million cubic miles, 2.6% or 8.6 million cubic miles is in land-waters.


5182
From the lower sea-levels of an ice-age, we may deduce that a 600 feet reduction of sea levels is accompanied by an increase in land-waters from 2.6% of total waters to 7% of total waters ... that is, from 8.6 million cubic miles to 23 million cubic miles. These are, of course, approximations.


5183
During an ice-age, the present .78% (of total water) in lakes, rivers, and other surface and underground non-ice-cap waters, may become at least 2% ... that is, non-ice-cap land-waters may treble and soil waters may increase to an even greater extent.


5184
During an ice-age, aquifers become full and surface rocks and soils become water-saturated.


5185
Geological evidence indicates that, during the last iceage, huge lakes developed in western USA, Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, asiatic Russia, central Africa and central Australia.


5186
From 220mya to 3mya, the Earth's climate was fairly uniform. The tropical and sub-tropical belts extended down to the mid-latitudes, and the cold belts were in the high latitudes close to the poles.


5187
There is some evidence that the Earth's mean air temperature dropped from 23 degrees C to 17 degrees C over the period 80mya-20mya ... and that mean air temperatures below 14 degrees C (the present level) have been confined to the past 2.5 million years. From this evidence, we may speculate that volcanism may have increased gradually from 80mya and intensified over the past 2.5 million years.


5188
At least two ice-ages occurred between 2.5 and .5 million years ago ... and at least four ice-ages occurred between .5 million years ago and 10,000 years ago. A theory, developed within this network, is that core-explosion heat is coming ever closer to the surface ... and, as it does so, volcanism increases progressively ... and, with it, increasing stratospheric de-insolation, and ice-ages. The theory includes the concept that the Earth, as a whole, is heating up and that the biosphere is cooling in this penultimate phase ... but that, when the core-explosion heat actually reaches the surface, a Venus-type scenario will develop.


5189
In the present interglacial period, temperature peaked about 4,000-6,000 years ago. The Earth's mean air temperature is now dropping, as the Earth heads towards another ice-age. The suddenness of onset of the next iceage will depend on the incidence of de-insolating volcanism.


5190
During an ice-age, the global wind patterns change so that cold low-pressure fronts move further, from higher to lower latitudes, and warm humid high-pressure air moves further from lower to higher latitudes. The high latitude heat-sinks become intensified. The warm stratospheric belt widens and extends lower. The warm humid tropical air moves more to high latitude sinks and less to high altitude sinks. The mixing and randomisation of tropospheric heat energy becomes more pronounced, and global water precipitation increases significantly.


5191
During an ice-age, mid-latitude precipitation is dramatically increased.


5192
From now on, we may expect major north-south and south-north airflows to increase, and we may expect the trade winds and westerlies to abate. As part of this scenario, we may expect El Niño and the southern oscillation to become a permanent feature.


5193
Reading all network propositions together, we expect a rapid return of ice-age conditions.


5194
It is noted that there has been very little polar wander or migration during the quaternary ice-ages. The ice caps have advanced and retreated simultaneously during the past 2.5 million years.


5195
Once a period of cold has been started, its own effects tend to intensify it. As ice accumulates, it reflects more and more of the solar heat back into space.


5196
Glacial winds pick up fine dust from ice-eroded river beds and exposed coastal sea-floors. This loess dust is carried and deposited far and wide, creating rich agricultural land.


5197
During ice-ages, permafrost areas become greatly extended. Under permafrost conditions, underground ice forms a subsurface layer which is impermeable ... and summer meltwater accumulates in the top few feet of soil. The ground becomes saturated with water and becomes unstable ... causing extensive mudflows.


5198
Micro oceanic life-forms require not only water, carbon dioxide and solar energy, but also phosphorus, nitrogen and other chemical elements. Nutritious elements which are close to the surface are soon exhausted. In the deeper water, decaying organic matter, which has sunk down from the surface, enables nutrients to regenerate ... but upwelling currents are needed to bring these nutrients to the surface. Most of the ocean waters are as unproductive as a desert.


5199
Upwelling takes place when currents or winds from the land drive the surface water seaward, so that water from 300-1,000 metres deep brings nutrients to the surface, making upwelling ocean areas fertile.


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