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Network Propositions
1400 - 1499


1400
The generalised equation for the coefficient of elasticity of demand and supply is:

Coefficient of Elasticity of Demand and Supply


1401
Changes of consumer standards of living tend to be upwardly elastic under conditions of increasing purchasing power, but downwardly inelastic under conditions of decreasing purchasing power. Standards of living readily move upwards but resist downward adjustment: This phenomenon is known as the 'ratchet effect'. As their purchasing power drops, consumers will use savings before dropping their standard of living.


1402
The working model, favoured by most astrophysicists, is that a massive black-hole, of 106 - 108 solar masses, is the central engine of a typical active galactic nucleus.


1403
Permanent, congenital, or inherited biological adaptations are generally believed to have arisen, over long periods of time, by means of natural selection of essentially random variations which are inherited.


1404
Aegyptopithecus, a primate that lived during Oligocene times, 3 million years ago, in the Egyptian Fayum, is considered to be the common ancestor of humans and apes.


1405
An algorithm is a precise, programmable formulation of a method for doing something. Algorithms are used to accomplish specific tasks, using data and instructions, when applying computers. A task must be definable in order that an algorithm may be devised and specified for a computer to perform the task.


1406
Proteins represent the chief organic constituent of living tissues and are the most important raw materials for growth. During growth, the proteins (stored in the egg, or provided as food from outside) are digested into their constituent amino acids ... and these are then resynthesised into the substance of the living cells.


1407
Viruses are the smallest infectious agents (20-300 nanometres in diameter), containing as their genetic material a molecule of either RNA or DNA. Viruses are able to propagate only within living cells: They are generally destroyed by heating at 60 degrees C, for 30 minutes.


1408
The Antarctic continent holds 5,750,000 cubic miles of ice, which is 90% of all the ice on Earth. Antarctica has almost 3 times the mean height of the other continents. If all the Antarctic ice were to melt, world sea levels would rise some 200 feet.


1409
Perception is the formation, from a sensory signal, of an internal representation suitable for intelligent processing.


1410
In computer programming, the main technique for bringing knowledge to bear, is the evaluation function, which can be applied to a position to estimate directly its chance of being on a winning path. Such value functions are heuristic, only approximating a correct analysis.


1411
UV radiation, of wavelength 240-320 nanometres, is absorbed by atmospheric ozone and prevented from reaching the Earth's surface. This radiation is lethal to simple unicellular organisms (algae, bacteria and protozoa) and to the surface cells of higher plants and animals. It also damages the genetic material of cells (DNA).


1412
The first fission bombs released energies to the order of 20,000 tonnes of TNT (20 kilotonnes). Yields in excess of 100,000,000 tonnes of TNT (100 megatonnes) have been reported for fusion bombs. One megatonne is equivalent to 4.18 x 10'3joules of energy.


1413
Protons and neutrons possess approximately equal masses, each roughly 1840 times that of an electron.


1414
Avogadro's law posits that equal volumes of all gases and vapours, under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, contain an identical number of molecules.


1415
Due to extensive losses of energy at each step in a food chain, going from primary producers on up the chain, there is a change in the amount of energy flowing to new biomass at each step in the chain.


1416
Evidence exists for the presence of bacteria in oil reservoirs at depths of about 2,000 metres within the Earth.


1417
Every process occurring in the world results in an overall increase in entropy and a corresponding degradation of energy.


1418
Hydrogen constitutes almost 50% of the content of organisms in the biosphere. Taken together, hydrogen, carbon and oxygen constitute over 99% of all atoms in the biosphere.


1419
General relativity predicts that, if a star of more than 3 solar masses has completely burned its nuclear fuel, it should collapse to a 'black hole'. The horizon of a 'black hole' is an ideal one-way membrane; that is, particles and light can go inward through the surface, but none can go outward.


1420
At constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure: This is known as Boyle's Law or Mariotte's Law.


1421
At constant pressure, the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies directly with the absolute temperature. At constant volume, the gas pressure varies directly with the absolute temperature. This is known as Charles' Law or Gay-Lussac's Law.


1422
Most of the energy used by man is chemical energy, derived from changing chemical bonds in food or fuel.


1423
Most of the world's available power comes from the combustion of coal or of petroleum hydrocarbons.


1424
According to the first law of thermodynamics, the total energy E of a system is the sum of its kinetic energy T, its potential energy V, and its internal energy U: That is E = T + V + U


1425
On the Richter scale, each magnitude level is 30 times more energetic: For instance, a magnitude 7 shock is about 30 times more energetic than one of magnitude 6. The largest known shock measured 8.9. The intensity of an earthquake is a measure of the severity of shaking and its attendant damage at a point on the surface of the Earth. The same earthquake may have different intensities at different places. The intensity usually decreases away from the epicentre (the point on the surface directly above the onset of the earthquake).


1426
The empirical method is necessary in entering hitherto completely unexplored fields. Successful use of an exclusively empirical method demands a high degree of intuitive ability in the practitioner.


1427
Space and time are two aspects of the space-time manifold: Space and time are interdependent.


1428
Intense UV radiation dissociates all organic compounds exposed to it.


1429
For a thermonuclear reaction to become self-sustaining, a so-called critical temperature of about 35,000,000 K must be attained. The chain reaction then continues until the supply of fusionable material is exhausted or until sufficient expansion has taken place to enable the gas to cool below critical temperature.


1430
In order to infinitise an atom, the same level of energy must be applied as was necessary for its formation.


1431
The principle of inertia of energy states that the inertial properties of matter are determined by the total energy content of matter. If the mass of a body changes by an amount ðm, the corresponding energy change is ðE = c² x ðm. This formula has been well tested.


1432
Lenz's Law states that a change (of electromotive force ... emf) cannot propagate itself. This law is a form of the law of conservation of energy. Induced currents produce a flux in such a direction as to oppose the change.


1433
Most of the universe exists in plasma states ... that is, in states of ionised gases.


1434
The laws of thought are conventions which may be modified or rejected in order to create new logics. A logic appropriate to one paradigm may not be appropriate to another. The only requirement that a new logic must satisfy is the one required of every deductive system, namely, consistency.


1435
If cells, or virus-infected cells, are subjected to illumination by light in the blue, or near-ultraviolet range, the degree of survival is markedly increased. This phenomenon is known as photoreactivation.


1436
Ultraviolet rays ionise, or tend to ionise, atoms which they encounter. (Note: An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, which by loss or gain of one or more electrons, has acquired an electric charge.)


1437
Large doses of ultraviolet radiation increase the permeability of cells to various substances.


1438
Ultraviolet light produces mutations in all cells and it does this by a relatively small chemical alteration in the DNA.


1439
In rather high doses, ionising radiation acts to depress the immune system.


1440
Cell division is inhibited by ultraviolet light.


1441
The effect of ultraviolet radiations upon cells is invariably deleterious.


1442
Heat flows by conduction, convection or radiation. (Note: Conduction refers to a flow of thermal energy through a substance by atomic or molecular interactions. Convection refers to the transfer of thermal energy by actual physical movement from one location to another of a substance in which thermal energy is stored. Radiation refers to the passing of thermal energy through gases ... so that, while the gas medium absorbs some of the heat, much or most of the emitted heat is absorbed by the liquids or solids on which the rays impinge.)


1443
According to the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, accurate measurement of an observable quantity necessarily produces uncertainties in one's knowledge of the values of other observables. According to the principle of complementarity, nature has 'complementary' aspects; an experiment which illuminates one of these aspects necessarily simultaneously obscures the complementary aspect. At any instant, only a limited amount of information is usable for predicting the future course of any system.


1444
Whereas only 19% of solar energy is absorbed directly by atmosphere, 47% is transmitted to the surface, where it is absorbed and ultimately re-radiated to atmosphere.


1445
The input of energy into atmosphere is mainly from below, via the surface. The energy input is, for the most part, in the lower latitudes (Note: The equator input is twice that of 60 degrees of latitude. From 0-30 degrees of latitude, the input is virtually the same).


1446
Organic species have developed from life-forms which are low on energy-quality release and usage to life-forms which are high on energy-quality release and usage.


1447
By our increasing complexity, as organic species, we have increased our internal energy impedence, thus transmuting our internal energy to lower amperage and higher frequency. The higher the frequency, the greater the level of quality release and absorption.


1448
Some energy is always burnt up during any energy conversion: Energy is dissipated in the form of waste heat. Heat energy is always lost, to some degree , when and as it is converted back to work. Heat loss is irreversible once it has occurred. There is an inexorable trend towards the degradation of mechanical work into heat, but not vice versa. All energy transformations are irreversible.


1449
'Entropy' represents the capacity for change of energy.


1450
Heat only flows from a hotter to a colder region.


1451
Entropy increases, as energy dissipates heat, and it attains its maximum value when all its potential for further work is exhausted. The total entropy of the universe is remorselessly increasing towards its maximum ... that is, to singularity.


1452
Clausius conceived the universe to be a perfectly isolated system.


1453
According to Eddington, the law of entropy holds the supreme position among the laws of nature.


1454
The dynamics of equilibrium (singularity) are the dynamics of transfinity. The processes of energy conversion (i.e. Of thermodynamics) are the processes of premetamorphosis. All the 'lost' time-space usefulness (quality) of energy/mass is the gain of monads. The Absolute never 'loses' its usefulness (quality): The usefulness (quality) is simply transmuted from finite life to transfinite life.


1455
Everything tends to order, via time-space randomisation. By the entropic processes, order moves from finite expressions to transfinite expressions. Order, control, cohesion and will are never belittled or reduced but transmuted.


1456
At the microscopic and nucleonic interfaces, between finity and transfinity, order may be observed to change its forms, but order is always present.


1457
The spontaneous creation of order is not ruled out by the law of entropy. Order self-organises.


1458
According to Poincare, every isolated system will eventually return to its original state.


1459
Boltzmann commented that theory was the content of his whole life.


1460
Boltzmann's work seems to suggest that the entropic 'arrow of time' is purely subjective, existing only outside the microscopic world, through our own understanding and interpretations.


1461
Entropy is the measure of ignorance and negentropy is the measure of knowledge (information).


1462
The creative intelligence is negentropic: It feeds on the quality which it releases (via entropy) from energy/ mass. As creative intelligence releases quality from mass, it feeds upon that quality, including the quality of cohesion. Creative intelligence, although itself negentropic, has an entropic effect upon energy/mass.


1463
Creative intelligence is a transfinite quality, which absorbs the quality of mass and transmutes order from finite expressions to transfinite expressions. Creative intelligence is negentropic by nature and entropic by action.


1464
Creative intelligence grows negentropically, by feeding entropically ... that is, by releasing and absorbing the usefulness/quality of mass.


1465
Creative intelligence 'sucks out' and absorbs the quality of mass.


1466
Creative intelligence uses the quality, which it takes from energy/mass, for use in transfinite creations.


1467
Prigogine states that self-organising processes must be inherent in some classes of dynamical systems. He says that, while laws involve determinism and certitude, events contain and imply elements of arbitrariness and of probability. He sees this as the law-event duality of existence and through all, he sees everything as alive and self-organising.


1468
Kant said that 'God has put a secret art into the forces of Nature so as to enable it to fashion itself out of chaos into a perfect world system.'


1469
Small excursions away from thermodynamic equilibrium lead to macroscopic order.


1470
Order is essential to creation and chaos is merely an intermediate stage from one order-system to another order-system.


1471
Via chaos, we monads are moving from a finite order-system to a transfinite order-system ... and the creative intelligence is the major destructive-creative agency by which this is achieved.


1472
Self-organisation is widespread in biology. Where a system is driven to a certain point beyond equilibrium, patterns of self-organisation appear.


1473
Oscillations take place in biology to help organisms to harness energy, like photosynthesis. Enormous numbers of molecules communicate with each other in self-organising patterns of behaviour.


1474
Brusselator-type research shows that molecules are able to communicate with each other transfinitely: They instinctively know when to turn blue or red, or left or right, and all this being completely independent of the initial experiment conditions. The non-equilibrium Brusselator can become self-organising in time-space.


1475
Not any physical condition (whether chaos, singularity or other) can kill monads or monadic organisation ... for monads are eternal, transfinite beings. Monads survive singularity, for they are beings of singularity ... that is, beings of the Absolute.


1476
Certain behaviours of turbulence appear to be self-organising ... such that one is tempted to say that they behave of their own free will: There may be evidence here of spontaneous creativity.


1477
With regard to any and all observations of seemingly self-organising behaviour, it may be suggested that the observer knowingly or unknowingly influences the events observed. But even if the observer's mind is functionally or integrally related to the observed phenomena, the phenomena exist.


1478
Singularity is the condition of total potential and zero expression: It is transfinite and co-existent with all states of expression.


1479
When chaos is present, there is exquisite sensitivity to the initial conditions.


1480
All evolution and all life proceeds of and within singularity ... that is, of and within the Absolute.


1481
Singularity (the Absolute) is the total reality.


1482
By definition, there can be but one singularity. It follows that all the big bangs and crunches and black-holes are one. And, as time-space is zero at singularity, it follows that singularity exists irrespective of any time-space expressions.


1483
The Absolute is defined in the same terms as singularity: All is Absolute and all is singularity. To say we are creations of the Absolute is to say we are creations of singularity.


1484
All living systems are dissipative of usefulness (quality), in that entropy is increasing.


1485
The dissipation of energy, as heat, occurs in every energy conversion process: This is dissipative chaos, or entropy.


1486
Deterministic chaos is internally and spontaneously generated by a system, as an intrinsic feature.


1487
Order and deterministic chaos both spring from the same source, namely from dissipative dynamical systems.


1488
One may encounter islands of order between regimes of chaos.


1489
The 'strange attractor' and 'chaotic attractor' are innate tendencies for spontaneous variations on an initiated theme: Nature explores all possible variations of any initiation, and does this automatically and geometrically.


1490
Where many choices are available to a system (in the form of vast numbers of adjacent stable states), a very predictable dynamic behaviour occurs, known as deterministic chaos.


1491
Creative intelligence offers so many choices that it engenders deterministic chaos, and causes the proliferation of regimes of chaos.


1492
The Absolute can never be less than Absolute: It can never be less than complete: It is wholly within each part, each thing, each being, each temporal tense, each spatial locus, and each state. As it is wholly in each state, it is at once, wholly in the state of timespace finity and wholly in the state of chaos and wholly in the state of singularity.


1493
When there is an apparent change, from one condition or expression or state to another, this change is in appearance only, for the Absolute is wholly in each of these, timelessly and spacelessly. A time change is apparent to observation viewpoints of time-space but the Absolute is always complete and perfect.


1494
The changes of entropy are apparent only: They are the expressions of changes of awareness. As our species evolves, from physical to mental, we change from physical awareness to mental awareness and, in this process, we withdraw quality from the one state to the other. But always we remain Absolute and complete: We lose nothing of our perfection in the process.


1495
We are qualitative beings and, as our awareness changes, from physical to mental, we take our awareness of quality with us. This withdrawal is, in physical terms, the abatement of usefulness (quality) known as entropy.


1496
An aspect of existence, which tends to baffle people, is its absoluteness ... that is, the oneness! ... the oneness which the differentiations of time and space hide. Our species constructs its environment from our purposes and our needs of survival ... and these purposes and needs call for differentiation ... and differentiation conceals the oneness of existence. But now, as we fast approach the transmutation of our metamorphosis from finity to transfinity, we need to learn about our oneness and we need to learn fast.


1497
Yes, we may still differentiate as much as we want but it will be against a background of ever-present awareness of our oneness. In terms of knowledge, the most important lesson to be learned now is the lesson of our oneness. We are many paintings but we are one canvas and one artist. We fight and conquer or submit; we live or die as bodies live and die; we have all that we need to have, and lack what we need to lack ... but we are sovereign beings, in whom the great God (which is all existence) dwells, absolutely: And the mighty truth is that the Absolute is one ... that we are one! All else pales into tenth rate compared with this overweaning and ineffable truth.


1498
Living is a process of progressive comprehension of our absoluteness. The comprehension depends upon our own uniquely individual path of discovery. What we see and experience is essentially private, for each of us is so different. There is no independent reality ... that is, there is no reality independent of us. We see and experience what we need to see and experience, and what we are able to see and experience.


1499
It is paradoxical that, while we are one, we are also selfishly individual. Each sovereign individual monad struggles to achieve its own living space ... struggles to achieve its own universe. Struggle is the process of self-realisation. As we become more self-realised, our consciousness of self takes in and comprehends more and more of existence ... until it becomes all existence. Struggle and conflict and pain are essential to our progress on the path of self-realisation.


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