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Network Propositions
900 - 999


900
From the Sun, the Earth inherited an inner core of hydrogen-isotope plasma.


901
As the Earth's outer layers cooled, they changed state from gaseous to liquid to solid: The Earth contracted and decreased in volume.


902
The Earth cooled progressively, from the outside, inwards towards the centre.


903
As the outer layers were cooling faster, they were contracting faster ... and 'squeezing' the plasma of the inner core. This process was putting in place the structure and mechanism of an H-Bomb, on a grand scale.


904
Over time, the cooling/contracting outer layers of the Earth advanced inwardly ... progressively increasing the constricting pressures bearing upon the core. More and more solidifying matter accreted to the base of the solid mantle, which grew steadily downwards.


905
As the pressure on and within the core rose, its temperature and density rose. Finally, 180 million years ago, the temperature/pressure/density of the inner core plasma became critical and its hydrogen-isotope molecules fused, to form helium molecules, in a huge chain reaction of radio-activity, causing a thermonuclear explosion which spread throughout the entire core.


906
The explosion of the core, 180 million years ago, immediately reversed the cooling of the mantle to a heating up of the mantle. There was a huge transfer of energy, from core to mantle, in the form of heat.


907
Seismic forces caused fissures to open up in the cold upper mantle, and molten matter was forced up to the surface, forming new crustal ocean floors and delivering steam to create ocean waters. The whole mantle started to expand and the surface of the Earth with it.


908
Over the past 180 million years, Earth's volume has been increasing at a constant rate (cumulatively), and its total density has been reducing at a constant rate ... and its total mass has been unchanged.


909
E=MC² and, when mass A imparts energy to mass B, it delivers of its mass to B. When the exploding core delivers heat energy to the mantle, it delivers part of its mass to the mantle. Over the past 180 million years, the core has progressively transferred its energy/mass to the mantle.


910
Mantle/core mass relativities, over the past 180 million years, are estimated as follows:(In 000's of billion, billion tonnes)

Mantle Core Total
180mya 1.5 4.5 6.0
135mya 2.0 4.0 6.0
80mya 2.6 3.4 6.0
Omya 4.0 2.0 6.0


911
Mantle/core volume relativities, over the past 180 million years, are estimated as follows:(In billions of cubic kilometres)

Mantle Core Total
180mya 231.5 3.5 235.0
135mya 389.2 13.4 402.6
80mya 640.1 64.4 704.5
Omya 1,449.4 281.8 1,731.2


912
Mantle/core average density relativities, over the past 180 million years, are estimated as follows:(In grams per cubic centimetre)

Mantle Core Total
180mya 10.3 2,133.0 40.5
135mya 8.4 474.0 23.7
80mya 6.5 84.0 13.5
Omya 4.5 11.4 5.5


913
Core/total radius relativities, over the past 180 million years, are estimated as follows:(In kilometres)

Core Radius Total Earth Radius
180mya 792 3,273
135mya 1,258 3,897
80mya 2,124 4,718
Omya 3,475 6,372


914
The seismic effects, of the core explosion, are the first to reach the surface, causing huge fissures to open up in the solid crust, through which great magma flows erupt and spurt from the molten mantle under-layers. The core-explosion is of such gigantic magnitude that the whole mantle is forced outwards from the centre: The outer layers expand and rise ... and the total volume and the total surface area expand. The surface lifts and surface gravity drops dramatically.


915
During the Jurassic period, from 180mya to 135mya, total Earth volume increased by 71% and surface area by 42%. The core expanded to four times its pre-explosion volume, and imparted one-ninth of its energy/mass to the mantle. During this 45 million year period, 19 million square miles of oceans were added to the pre-explosion, all-land surface. Also, 3 million square miles of new land was added.


916
During the Cretaceous period, from 135mya to 80mya, waters were abundant and the atmosphere became very life-supportive. Organic life developed in great variety and complexity. By 80mya, Earth volume had increased by 200%, from the time of the explosion (180mya). During the 55 million year period (135-80mya), 32 million square miles of oceans and 2 million square miles of land were added. By 80mya, the core had expanded to nineteen times its pre-explosion volume and had imparted one-quarter of its energy/mass to the mantle.


917
During the Modern period, from 80mya to the present time, waters have become even more abundant and the atmosphere has become even more life-supportive. Present Earth volume is now more than seven times the volume of pre-explosion Earth. Earth's surface now extends over an area 3.8 times that of pre-explosion Earth. During the 80 million year period (80mya-Omya), 89 million square miles of oceans were added, and now oceans cover 71% of the Earth's surface. Now the core has expanded to eighty-four times its pre-explosion volume and has imparted 55% of its energy/mass to the mantle.


918
The explosion heat is coming ever closer to the surface and now we have 1,200 degrees centigrade at a depth of 100 miles. The heat flux at the mid-ocean construction ridges is high and the oceans are warming up.


919
Changes in Earth's surface area, over the past 180 million years, are estimated as follows:(In millions of square kilometres)

Land Sea Total
180mya 135 - 135
135mya 143 49 192
80mya 148 132 280
Omya 148 362 510

(It will be noted that, prior to the explosion of 180mya, Earth was one land mass and was devoid of seas.)


920
The core explosion, of 180mya, caused the all-land Pangean crust to split into two major assemblies, as follows:


921
The explosion, of 180mya, caused a continuous seaway (the Tethys) to open up between the northern and southern assemblies. The seaway completely separated Africa from Euro-Asia: It continued east, from the Mediterranean, above Arabia, to the Persian Gulf ... and thence eastwards above India (which was separated from Asia at the time of the explosion), beneath south Asia, to join up with the Pacific and then the Atlantic.


922
The main 'blow-out' area of the explosion was (and still is) the Pacific zone. From its inception, the Pacific ocean-floor construction ridge fed eastwards, exerting great leverage against the west coasts of North America ... to the degree that approximately 7 million square miles of new ocean crust was subducted under these coasts during the 45 million years (180-135mya), following the explosion.


923
The main, surface, directional forces of the explosive 'blow-out' in the Pacific are:A. A west to east extension force, and B. A south to north extension force.


924
The south to north extension force extracted North America from its pre-explosion position in the old Antarctic assembly. South America was held locked into the African Gulf of Guinea, while North America moved north. The west to east extension force meantime moved North America east over South America ... to the relative positioning of the two American continents which is familiar to us today.


925
The west to east extension force had a dramatic effect upon the overall relative positioning of the northern and southern assemblies. South Euro-Asia moved 1,500 miles east, relative to North Africa, during the 45 million years following the explosion.


926
The south to north extension force of the explosion caused the development of vast southern oceans and changed the apportionment of hemisphere land as follows:

Percentage Changes of Hemisphere Land
Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere
180mya 50 50
135mya 53 47
80mya 58 42
Omya 69 31


927
The greater inertia of the northern lands, relative to the southern, causes the southern lands to precess the northern, rotationally, eastwards.


928
Due to the increasing inertial differential, between northern and southern hemisphere lands, the 180-135mya lateral eastward shift of Euro-Asia, relative to North Africa, ceased 135 million years ago. In the modern phase, we now see evidence of some easterly displacement of southern land masses, relative to northern land masses.


929
The 180-135mya eastward movement of Euro-Asia (relative to North Africa) caused a huge displacement northwards of the European bloc (relative to the Asian bloc) along the Urals line. The Urals continue to function as a zone where major crustal adjustments take place between the European and Asian blocs.


930
During the Jurassic (180-135mya), large areas of the early Tethys sea floors rose to form new lands along the south Asian coasts ... lands such as Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. These upheavals closed the east-west seaway above Arabia. Meantime, almost two million square miles of new lands were added in northern and north-eastern extensions to Asia, including most of Siberia.


931
During the 180 million years of the post-explosion period, approximately 105 million square miles of Pacific floors have been created, of which 37 have been subducted and 68 remain. The development was as follows:

Pacific ocean Floor Development (areas in millions of square miles)
Floors Created Floors Subducted Floors Remaining
180-135mya 17 7 10
135-80mya 31 11 20
80-Omya 57 19 38
Totals 105 37 68

From 180mya to 80mya, most of the subduction went under North America. From 80mya to the present, substantial areas of subducted floors have gone under South America, as well as under North America.


932
The more greatly distended low-latitude surface areas move faster, rotationally, than high-latitude surface areas. This phenomenon, whereby equatorial lands move eastwards faster than non-equatorial lands, is known as equatorial precession. The effects of this are very marked in the disposition of Pacific ocean floors. The main Pacific construction ridge exhibits a pronounced equatorial bulge towards the east.


933
Land masses have greater moments of inertia than equivalent areas of ocean floor. Accordingly, land-crust lags behind ocean-crust, rotationally. Over time, ocean-crust moves east relative to land-crust. This phenomenon is known as ocean-floor precession.


934
The five major directional forces, bearing upon the disposition of land and ocean crust, are:Crustal Extensions and Precessions


935
Approximately 80% of the Earth's present volcanic and seismic activity is within the Pacific zone: Risk areas include:


936
Apart from the Pacific zone, other areas of volcanic and seismic activity include:


937
A key geophysical aspect is that surface curvature adjustments, resulting from Earth expansion, are major in large continental crust areas, such as Euro-Asia. These adjustments are made at sub-plate margins, and at peripheral sphenochasms and, isostatically, in crustal depth compensations.


938
The major, overpowering geophysical force is the lifting/ expansion of the Earth's total surface area, due to the core explosion. This tends to cause rifting and separation of land masses into smaller segments.


939
During the Permian and Triassic periods, which preceded the explosion of 180mya, the Earth's surface was dry and barren: Gravity was high and conditions generally were unfavourable for the development of organic life. Indeed, most of the life-forms of that time became extinct. The explosion of the core resulted in a vast, beneficial change in living conditions on Earth's surface.


940
The explosion of the core caused enormous quantities of hot lava, steam, carbon dioxide and nitrogen to issue from fissures which opened up in the mantle.


941
At high altitudes, water vapour dissociated into its constituent elements: The concentration of oxygen and ozone, in atmosphere, increased markedly.


942
At lower altitudes, saturation levels of water vapour led to major condensation and the formation of oceans. The warm, steamy atmosphere near the surface was ideal for living forms.


943
The expansion of the core and mantle caused the Earth's surface to lift and expand. Mean density was reduced and the global radius was extended. The increasing distance of the surface, from Earth-centre, had the effect of continually reducing the gravitational force which life-forms had to contend with.


944
The new low-gravity conditions enabled the giant dinosaurs to develop and enabled the first birds to fly. Animals could move faster and leap higher, and their general capability was enhanced. Evolutionary parameters were extended physiologically and anatomically.


945
The oxygen-enriched atmosphere added greatly to the ozone layer, giving much needed protection against life-threatening ultra-violet radiation.


946
Organic life gained six major benefits from the global renaissance, namely:


947
The whole process of evolution was speeded up after the core explosion. Prior to the explosion, there was insufficient oxygen in atmosphere to support abundant life, and the level of ozone was too low to prevent ultra-violet rays, in the harmful frequency band, from reaching the surface. Life was restricted mainly to the UV protection of shallow waters ... and even these waters became scarce in the period immediately preceding the explosion.


948
From the time of the explosion until the beginning of civilisation, the natural forces of evolution held sway. During this 180 million year period, organic life flourished and the number and complexity of species multiplied to an astonishing degree. In particular, conditions were ideally suited to the development of a great variety of land-based animals. The strong survived in the profuse biosphere and the weak succombed. This was the 'law of the jungle' regime, upon which organic evolution was predicated.


949
The 'law of the jungle' regime prevailed until the beginnings of human civilisation, 10,000 years ago. Then, mankind started to plant crops and to husband livestock ... started to store grain and to fortify villages and to dig wells.


950
The Time Table of Evolution is as follows:

Time Table Of Evolution
Million years ago
4,600 Formation of Earth
3,300 First one-celled organisms
2,300 Development of blue-green algae
1,300 First DNA inheritance
700 First multi-celled organisms
400 Primitive fish
380 First insects
280 First reptiles
180 Core explosion - Renaissance begins
180-150 Dinosaurs. First birds. First mammals. Lizards, crocodiles, sharks, turtles, bivalve molluscs, ammonites, trees and flowering plants. Corals flourish
150-70 Giant dinosaurs. Flowering plants and insects flourish
70-40 Mammalian species multiply in number and variety: The primates evolve about 40mya
40-2 The age of the mammals continues: Primitive Man-apes evolve about 2mya
Thousand years ago
500 Advent of Pithecanthropus Erectus
250 Advent of Neanderthal Man
40 Advent of Cromagnon Man (modern man)
10 Planting of cereal crops and domestication of animals. Civilisation begins


951
The emerging civilisations called for laws, order and the development of social mores. Men gained time to think and time to invent.


952
Invariably these inventions, of the creative intelligence, were aimed at releasing and controlling energy, in its countless forms.


953
The advent and development of human creative intelligence ranks, along with the organic molecule and the core explosion, as one of the epochal events of Earth history.


954
Instead of relying mainly upon hunter/gatherer activities to produce energy (food, fuel, clothing etc.), men began to rely increasingly upon more intelligent and rewarding activities. The resultant population increase was staggering: Here are the figures:

Year Estimated Human Population (millions)
20,000 BC 2
10,000 BC 5
300 BC 100
1AD 150
800 AD 200
1,400 AD 300
1,550 AD 400
1,700 AD 600
1,850 AD 1,000
1,930 AD 2,000
1,960 AD 3,000
1,975 AD 4,000
1,988 AD 5,000


955
The close proximity of members of urban populations has been accompanied by a growing sense of community and communal responsibility. Socialistic and welfare doctrines have largely nullified the laws of the jungle. The modus operandi, of the old process of evolution, has become inoperative as far as the human species is concerned. Warfare now often kills off the fittest, and welfare often nurtures and multiplies the least fit.


956
The environmental depredations, consequent on this huge population growth, have placed the biosphere in jeopardy: The human race has entered the phase of self-destruct.


957
The creative intelligence is one of the five universal forces, and it is the most powerful. The five universal forces are:


958
The creative intelligence is a superlatively effective randomising agency: It releases energy from a mass-state to a kinetic-state.


959
The actions of the creative intelligence have a general heating effect.


960
It does not follow, from 959, that the biosphere is heating up currently. Volcanism is cooling the biosphere.


961
The creative intelligence operates as a natural force and not as a service which is captive to mankind.


962
Since the nuclear advent of 1945, the actions of the creative intelligence have been increasingly inimical to the survival of the human species.


963
The survival of the human species will come under increasing attack from the following:


964
The indications are that mankind has a limited number of years remaining, in which to enjoy this planet ... possibly as few as thirty years.


965
In view of mankind's limited future earthly span, it is pointless to devote over-much attention to conservation efforts. Although we should take reasonable care of the environment, we should not proceed with high-cost conservation measures which would reduce living standards.


966
The % contribution of gases to global warming are estimated as follows:


967
Atmospheric ozone is extremely valuable and life-supportive. It absorbs solar heat and prevents it from reaching the surface, and it helps to prevent cool air layers from escaping. Ozone prevents much of the ultra-violet solar radiation from reaching the biosphere. Excessive ultra-violet exposure is life-threatening, to all organic forms.


968
By catalytic reaction, one molecule of CFC (chloro-fluorocarbon), released into atmosphere, may destroy up to one hundred thousand (100,000) molecules of ozone, before the CFC is finally neutralised.


969
Total ozone in atmosphere probably peaked at approximately four billion tonnes, in the early part of this century.


970
Approximately forty million tonnes of CFC's have been released into atmosphere, since their use began in the 1930's.


971
CFC's may last up to 400 years in atmosphere.


972
It takes 20-30 years for CFC's to reach ozone height: A major part of total released CFC is still on its way up to the ozone layer.


973
Sufficient CFC's have already been released to destroy the ozone layer ... completely.


974
Inevitably, dangerously high ultra-violet levels will cause genetic damage to the DNA structure of all Earth's living cells.


975
Increasing surface heat and increasing surface radiation, resulting from the core explosion, may be directly monitored at the mid-ocean construction ridges ... particularly at the south-eastern Pacific construction ridge.


976
Earthquakes are largely confined to quaternary volcanoes and adjacent areas: Most of these volcanoes are located in the Pacific zone. (Note: The quaternary period covers the last two million years.)


977
Shallow shocks release approx. 75% of all seismic energy.


978
Most of our astronomical data is many years old: Our relatively up-to-date information is confined to the solar system. Data from the nearest star is 4.3 years old ... and, of course, data from distant galaxies is many millions of years old. We may have risk-exposure, by reason of our lack of current data.


979
Black-holes probably exist within our own galaxy, and we don't know how close the nearest is to Earth. Black-holes constitute an unknown risk to Earth ... a wild variable.


980
We are predicting a period of increasing entropy (chaos and randomisation), including:


981
Earth expansion will cause increased volcanism and crustal adjustments, worldwide. The subduction under North America, of the north-eastern Pacific construction ridge, has frustrated outflows of magma from the expanding interior of the Earth. In addition to increased volcanic and seismic activity in western North America, compensating magma pressure has now built up around the western Pacific 'rim of fire' ... resulting in increased volcanism and seismic adjustments, from the Aleutians to Indonesia.


982
Volcanic ash emissions have a cooling effect on the lower atmosphere and a heating effect on the upper atmosphere, substantially altering the temperature differential between the upper and lower atmospheres and decreasing the propensity of lower layers of air to rise and cool and to precipitate rain.


983
Volcanic ash emissions tend to cause colder, longer winters ('ash winters') and shorter summers.


984
There is normally only a weak interchange of air across the Equator in the lower atmosphere. However, when El Niño is operating, northern hemisphere volcanic dust emissions may be carried down, across Australia, by the winds of the southern oscillation, to New Zealand.


985
The complex effect, of Greenhouse gases, ozone depletion and volcanic dust, is profoundly influencing weather and rainfall patterns worldwide ... and will continue to do so.


986
The consequences for all farming, agriculture and horticulture need to be carefully assessed.


987
An increased incidence of natural disasters may be expected ... namely, droughts, unseasonal frost and hail, storms, hurricanes, floods, landslides and crop failures.


988
By reason of the effects of Greenhouse gases, ozone depletion and volcanism, the biosphere will become less life-supportive ... and this at a time when world population is rising. We are entering a period when a large proportion of the world's peoples will come under major stress.


989
Land volcanoes erupt and develop where ocean plates subduct under continental plates. Volcanic island arcs were adjacent to continental land masses at the time of their initial development. Volcanic island arcs, which have developed over the last 65 million years, include Macquarie, Tonga-Kermadec, Fiji, New Hebrides, Solomans, Marianas and the Aleutians. That volcanism has increased over the past 2 million years, indicates that land masses are increasingly frustrating the development of new crust by the expanding Earth.


990
Recent studies of earthquake waves show the Earth to be essentially solid as far down as 1,800 miles below the surface.


991
Temperature increases with depth at one degree C for each 300 feet of depth: As depth becomes greater, the temperature increases less rapidly. At a depth of 100 miles, the temperature is well above surface melting point for all known rocks.


992
Rocks more than 100 miles deep are, however, not generally molten for, as pressure increases with depth, the melting point of rock rises. Increasing pressure at greater depths raises the melting point of rock faster than the temperature increases.


993
As new oceanic crust was formed, to accommodate expanding Earth volume, it welled up at ocean construction ridges adjacent to land masses and pushed out new magma to each side of the ridges. The new ocean floor, on the land mass side, accreted to the land mass plate. An example is the action of the mid-Atlantic construction ridge. The present ridge may be seen to follow the contours of the coast of western Europe and Africa. Ocean crust to the east of the ridge has become part of the Eurasian plate in the north and has become part of the African plate in the south.


994
Where new magma is unable to accrete to its adjacent land mass (in that the ridge has no surface room in which to spread and/or the adjacent land mass does not move to make room for the spreading) it subducts under its adjacent land mass. An example of this is the subduction of the Forex plate under the west coast of North America.


995
When construction-ridge activity is frustrated and forced to subduct its new magma under land masses, volcanism usually ensues.


996
The Pacific, as the main blow-out area (see 922), generates the most construction activity. The core explosion has manifested in a greater level of new crust formation over the past two million years ... and this has been marked by a great increase of volcanism around the rim of the Pacific.


997
In North-Eastern USA, ozone levels in spring are 20 per cent higher than those in the fall.


998
Although ozone depletion is worst in late winter, less ultraviolet gets through than in summer, when the ozone loss is less serious. The sun angle is so low in winter that the UV passes through more ozone then than during summer when there is less depletion.


999
Over the tropics, there has been no observed ozone depletion.


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