The Next 60,000 Years / The Earth
Previous Page Next Page Feedback
In the forenote, mention was node of navigational fixes derived by the author from his 11,000 plus propositions bearing upon the future. One very important vector concerns the Earth. The author has made four scale-models which show Earth as it was 180 million years ago, 135 million years ago, 80 million years ago, and as it is now. Illustrations of these models are shown on the following pages.
Globes in North American Perspective
Globes in Euro-Asian Perspective
Globes in Atlantic Ocean Perspective
Globes in Arctic Ocean Perspective
Globes in Indian Ocean Perspective
We now show the scale-models, starting with the Pacific ocean perspective, as the Pacific was (and still is) the main 'blow-out' area of the thermonuclear core-explosion of 180 million years ago. The initial mega-eruption was in the Marianas/Bonin/Izu ocean-trench areas and, continually creating more and More ocean floor, the main construction ridge fed away eastwards and now lies about 3,700 kilometres west of the Chilean coast.
Next, we show the globes in North American perspective. It is interesting to note that the east coast of North America was never joined to the west coast of Europe, as many have supposed. The core explosion separated North America from Antarctica, Australia and South America ... and, as the northern landmasses moved east, relative to the southern land-masses, North America moved to its present position above South America. It is important to note that this rotational differential, between the northern and southern land-masses is ongoing.
Next, we show the globes in Euro-Asian perspective. It will be seen that the north-south rotational differential has pulled Europe eastwards, relative to Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea has opened up; the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans have developed; and huge new lands have been added in Siberia and South-East Asia.
To complete this series of viewpoints, of expanding Earth, we now show the globes in Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean and Indian Ocean perspectives. Whereas there were no deep oceans at all in the all-land Pangea Earth of 180 million years ago, 71% of the surface of modern Earth is covered by vast oceans, and Earth has increased in volume from 146 billion cubic kilometres 180mya to 1,076 billion cubic kilometres now.
As core-heat comes closer to the surface, it is accompanied by volcanism, which has increased in extent and intensity over the past 2¼, million years, causing a series of iceages. About the year 2100, Earth will enter upon the final iceage and, fortunately, it will be a minor one. The gradually increasing surface heat-flux, from the core-explosion, will lessen the severity and duration of the coming cool period. The pattern of future global mean temperatures will be as follows:
Year - A.D.
Global Mean Temperature - Degrees Celsius
The El Niño/La Niña climatic regime, due to volcanism, will result in a steady increase of land-waters and cloud-cover ... which will raise the planetary albedo and lower the global mean temperature. Also, ice-melt waters (from northern ice-sheets) will surface-flood the North Atlantic, reducing evaporation and triggering the onset of the mini-iceage.
Once the global cooling trend is under way, the build-up of land-waters and ice will bring about a reduction of ocean levels ... and, by 5,000AD, these levels will be 20 metres lower than at present. However, by 20,000AD, when the global mean temperature has risen to 21 degrees Celsius, virtually all ice will have melted and ocean-levels will be 100 metres higher than at present. Then the great evaporation starts and, by 200,000AD, all water will be gone from the surface.
www.NormanSpencer.co.nz / The Next 60,000 Years / The Earth